Qutubeallahabad Home Introduction Tasawwuf(Sufism) जीवनी हज़रत शाह मुहिबउल्लाह इलाहाबादी حیٰوۃ شیخ الکبیر حضرت شاہ محب اللہؒ الہ آبادی About Us Allahabad Gallery

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Works of Shaikh Muhibbullah Allahabadi

Works of Shaikh Muhibbullah Allahabadi

Shaikh Muhibbullah was a prolific and voluminous writer. As a great scholar and Sufi, Shaikh Muhibbullah has covered almost all the aspects of Tasawwuf in his works in Arabic and Persian language. The exact number of writings of the Shaikh has been not counted finally till today. The biographical works on the Shaikh have given different number of his books. We are giving here a list of the Shaikh's works classifying them on the basis of their theme in the larger context, with brief remarks about their subject matters.

Tarjumatul Quran

Shaikh Muhibbullah's Tarjumatul Kitab is a commentary on Qur'an. The purpose of the book is to provide Qur'anic justification for the doctrine of Wahdat-ul-Wujud. At several places he interprets Quranic verses in such a way contrary to the belief of the orthodox ulama. The Shaikh later added a glossary to the book under the title of Hashiya-e-Tarjumatul Kitab.


Shaikh Muhibullah wrote a commentary on Fusus al-Hikam in Arabic Tajalliyat-ul-Fusus. Later on he abridged it and brought out a Sharh-e-Fususal Hikam in Persian for the use of the Persian knowing Ulama. The whole book is fill of Mystical discussions and the doctrine of Wahdat-ul-Wujud. In the commentary, the commentator does not mention his own name or the date of composition in the usual places. The date of completion is added on the margin, against the colophon, the name of the author is added by a different hand as Shah Muhibbullah Allahabadi. The commentary begins immediately with the explanations of Bismillah.


This work is on the lines of the Fusus-ul-Hikam by Shaikh Ibn-e-Arabi and is divided into 81 sections, called anfas (meaning sayings). Each nafas is named after the Prophet or the Saint, the esoteric interpretation of whose teaching and life it contains. The book begin with al-nafas-al-Ahmadi, named after Al-Haqiqatul-Ahmadiyyah (the reality of Muhammad). Then follow the anfas of the Prophets fix)m Adam, Idris, Nuh and Ibrahim to the last Prophet Muhammad and anfas of the first four caliphs and then came to the anfas of some important saints of various places. The last is devoted to the author's own spiritual teacher Abu Sayeed Gangohi. Each nafas begins with the sayings of the Prophets; their sayings are those which occur in the Qur'an. The whole book, like Fusus-ul-Hikam, is fill of mystical discussions and theosophical speculations and advocates the doctrine of Wahdat- al Wujud.


This is a small treatise on Gnosis of God. This was written in 1053 A.H./1641 A.D. It contains seven cardinal principles of the Wahdat-ul-Wujud. Shaikh Muhibbullah writes that the true gnosis of God depends on seven things. The subjects of the treatise are: Names of God, His emanation in the world, His way of addressing men, perfection and imperfection of being knowledge of the self the world of imagination, the knowledge of spiritual diseases and their remedies. This is small but an important work of the Shaikh.'


This book, as suggested by it's very title; describe the beliefs of learned men and the Sufis. It is divided into 21 sections called daqa'eq. They contain sufistic and esoteric expositions of some religious responsibility, reward and punishment, commands and prohibitions, human actions. Divine will, prophetic office, angels, bodily resurrection, the essence of faith, retribution, mercy, Punishment in the grave and Hell, Imamat (caliphate) etc. The author has suggested that because of the daqa'eq that it contains, the book also may be entitled daqa'iq al-urafa,


It is a huge book consisting of a long introduction and 164 sections magalit (meaning fallacies). In this book Shaikh Muhibbullah discusses misconception of the people regarding mystical beliefs. Shaikh Muhibbullah says that when he explained his Sufi ideas and beliefs to the people, they requested him to expel the fallacies committed by those who are ignorant of the real truth (Wahdat- ul Wujud) and so he wrote this book,


It is also a huge book consisting of Introduction and 537 sections. The subjects of the book are: Gnosis of God (Marifat Allah), Islamic Sharia (origination and practice), Sufi's love for Prophet Muhammad and his Sunnah, Un- Islamic practice of Ulama-e-Bidah or Ulama-e-Rusum, Contribution of four Imams of Fiqh (Imam Abu Hanifa, Imam Shafai, Imam Malik, Imam Ahmad Ibn Hambal) and reason for Taqlid, Zuhd, Tark i- Dunya, Wazaif of Sufis, Khilwat, Hal (Spiritual Ecstasy), Story of jinnat and their conversion to Islam by Prophet Muhammad, Tauha (Repentance), Karamat (Miracles), Iman (Faith), Jahannum (Hell), Jannat (Paradise), Usool-e-Fiqh, Taharat, Salat, Sawm, Hajj, Qurb-e- Nawafil,


The most controversial work of Shaikh Muhibbullah is his Taswiyah in which he ardently defended the theories of Wahdat-al Wujud. This short treatise asserts that the Shaikh is firm belief in Wahdat-ul-Wujud and invites Sufis to submerge themselves in thoughts of the unity of being. This treatise provides valuable information regarding Wahdat-ul-Wujud. Taswiyah establishes the identity between God and the world. The most controversial doctrine of this short and provocative treatise is that "Jibrail was in Muhammad himself Every Prophet has his Jibrail in him. Jibrail speaks to every Prophet in his own language". Taswiyah was vehemently opposed by a group of Ulama. The reputed scholar Mulla Mahmood Jaunpuri wrote in refutation of Taswiyah a treatise entitled Hifzul Imanfi Raddil Taswiyah". Neither the opposition of the Ulama nor the threat of Emperor Aurengzeb could affect the popularity of the work which was commented by a number of eminent persons like Muhammadi Fayyaz, Shaikh Abdullah Dihelvi Bin Abdul Baqi Naqshbandi, Ali Akbar Dehlavi, Ali Anwar Qalander Kakorwi, Maulana Muhammad Afzal Bin Abdur Rahman Abbasi Allahabadi, Shah KalimuUah and Amanullah Banarasi etc,

Manazir-e-Akhassul Khawas

Shaikh Muhibullah completed this monumental work in 1050 A,H./1640 A.D. It is a very important Persian work on Tasawwuf written by him. It also deals with a brief description of his mystical career and spiritual experience. In this monumental work he discusses the basic concepts of Tasawwuf and systematically defines and defends the theory of Wahdat-ul-Wujud and differentiates between the knowledge gained by the Ulama and Sufi intuitions, and goes on to discuss various categories of the Sufi elite and their achievements. It emphasizes the importance of divine mercy and invites Sufis to inculcate in themselves of love for entire creation. This book is confined to Ibn- e-Arabi's ideals based on his Futuhat-e-Makkiyah and Fusus-ul-Hikam and is replete with the verses from the Qur'an and Hadith. The Shaikh quotes in this book other Sufis also but only to support and prove the philosophy of Ibn-e-arabi.
In the first manzar he tries to establish that the doctrines of the Sufis about God, His Essence and Attributes, Being (wujud) and the relation between the necessary and the contingent beings etc. The second manzer discusses the gnosis of God which, it says, is the summum bonum. The third manzar deals with the causes of increase and decrease in knowledge. The fourth manzer explains the highest stage of spiritual development is union with God. The theme of the fifth manzar is night vigils and vision of God. The sixth manzar deals with the importance of fasting. The theme of the eights manzar is the control of the self. The ninth and tenth manzars refer to Ibn- e-Arabi's doctrine that all things turn to God because God is the essence of all. The eleventh manzar defines the meaning of nearness and remoteness. The twelfth manzar discusses the vicegerency of God. The thirteenth manzar deals with God's max;y. The fourteenth manzar discusses love and mercy among human beings. The fifteenth manzar discusses respect; since everything is a manifestation of God, it deserves respect. The sixteenth manzar is concerned with respect for the saints. The theme of the seventeenth manzar is love. The eighteenth manzar discusses yearning. The nineteenth manzar is concerned with the reality of Tasawwuf.
The twentieth manzar describes the stage that lies between Siddiquat and Nubuwwat. The twenty first manzar discusses Truth, and its realization. The twenty second manzar discusses the problem of sima (audition) from legal as well as metaphysical point of view. The twenty third manzar deals with karamat (miracles) of the saints. Love of the family of the Prophet Muhammad is the subject of the twenty-fourth manzar. Faith of the last moment (Khatima) of the dying person is the theme of the twenty-fifth manzar. The twenty-six manzar discusses the concept of Qutb (lit. the pivot). The last and twenty seventh manzar discusses Ibn-e-Arabi's concept of Khatim-e-Wilayat (the seal of the saintship),

Maktubat-e-Shaikh Muhibbullah

Sufis like other individuals wrote letters to their teachers, disciples, friends and relatives, and most of them knew that their letters would subsequently be compiled so they were cautious in describing different situations and problems. Nevertheless, the letters are more valuable for an understanding of the stages in the development of their theories they wrote on their teachings. They also offer a valuable background to some historical events and social and religious controversies. Shaikh Muhibbullah's letters in particular deal with the concepts of Wahdat-ul-Wujud and answer questions asked by his Sufi friends or critics. He wrote letters to several of his contemporaries to explain his understanding of Wahdat-ul-Wujud. Their number is quite meager; only eighteen and were written to Mulla Mahmood Jaunpuri, Shaikh Abdul Rashid Jaunpuri, Shaikh Ataullah Jaunpuri, Mir Muhammad Qamiuji, Mir Syed Abdul Hakim, Shaikh Abdur Rahim, Shaikh Taj Muhammad, Shaikh Abdur Rahman and Shahzada Dara Shikoh. Dara Shikoh's appointment as Governor of Allahabad in 1645 A.D. brought him into direct contact with Shaikh Muhibbullah. Although it appears that during this period Dara Shikoh visited neither Allahabad nor the Shaikh, he began a correspondence with him, posing complicated questions on the Wahdat-ul-Wujud. In a letter Dara Shikoh wrote that the greatest pleasure given to him as Governor of Allahabad had been the Shaikh Muhibbullah residing in the same province. Some of the questions posed by Dara Shikoh in his letters to Shaikh Muhibbullah and the corresponding answers follow:

Dara Shikoh: What is the beginning and end of the Sufi path?

Shaikh Muhibbullah: The beginning is liberation from a belief in unreality and the end is the realization of the Essence of the Absolute.

Dara Shikoh: What is the significance of the statement "Return to the beginning", made by Junaid Bagdadi to a question on the culmination of the Sufi path?

Shaikh Muhibbullah: Firstly, in the beginning the Sufi excludes the ayn (essence), imagining the ayn as different (ghayr); in the end he absorbs himself m the quest for the ayn. Secondly, the beginning of the Sufi journey occurs in the nasut (world of bodies) and proceeds to the seat (arsh) of the merciful (Allah). The completion of the Sufi path involves descent from ascent. Leaders among Gnostics (arifin) are conscious of this and realize this spiritual sphere resemble the movement of time. The point which is at the extremity of the circle is in fact its focus.

Dara Shikoh: What is the true significance of the Hijab-e-Akbar (Great Veil)?

Shaikh Muhibbullah: If knowledge strikes (influences) the heart, it is welcome. If knowledge strikes the body, it is a burden. I believe that all knowledge is the hijab, for His attributes are the hijab of the essence. It is for this reason that in their teachings Gnostics (arifin) do not insist that those who seek Reality should attain any particular type of knowledge.

Dara Shikoh: Were the pre- Islamic prophets aware of Tawhid?

Shaikh Muhibbullah: According to Sufi a perfect form of Gnosticism is indispensable to prophethood (nubuwwat) although prophets themselves may be unaware of this. All prophets are endowed through Divine mercy with Gnosticism, although all the pre- Islamic ones were not Gnostics of equal stature. It has been unequivocally ascertained that their ayn (essence) perceived the self manifestation of the Absolute without being valid by attributes. In short, they themselves were followers of Tauhid. Prophets were forced to disseminate Divine secrets symbolically, according to the general understanding of their times, and therefore did not openly preach on certain esoteric matters.

Dara Shikoh: Are there some devotional exercises which Sufi performs involuntarily?

Shaikh Muhibbullah: My dear! All living beings are involuntarily concerned with their own devotional exercises. Gnostics (arifin) who occupy a high status indulge in devotional exercises with a full understanding of the meaning of their actions.

Dara Shikoh: How it is possible to perform namaz-e-be khatra (Undisturbed from. external thoughts)?

Shaikh Muhibbullah: In these circumstances when the Sufi's love for Allah uproots all hope and fear existing in his heart and also when the exoteric and esoteric eyes become so engrossed in enjoining the sight of the waves of the Wahdat (Unity of Being), that they are totally unconscious of the fact they are doing so. The waves appear because the ocean exists. The straw (wrongly) considers itself the cause of the motion. Secondly, thoughts on the Wahdat-ul -ujud should be free from anxieties relating to the waves of the creation. The form of namaz-e-be khatra is a misnomer; what actually occurs is that different type of spiritual satisfaction are experienced by the changes in the form of the anxiety. A perfect namaz devoid of anxiety, consequently it is the mir'aj (highest point of ascent) for the faithful. The anxieties are internal. In a sense Gnostics perform namaz-e-be khatra through an awareness that all anxieties emanate from the Bountiful Originator (Allah).

Dara Shikoh: Are all men equally capable of recognizing God?

Shaikh Muhibbullah: If the rain can grow sugar-cane on all types of plots, all human beings can recognize God in equal degree. Since there is a difference of degree in all fundamental principles, (human beings) too are full of differences.

Dara Shikoh: How can the Infinite merge with the (human) heart?  

Shaikh Muhibbullah: Those who know about the heart understand that it belongs to the category of the Infinite.

Dara Shikoh: Does the lover (Sufi) obtain union with the Beloved (Allah) after death?

Shaikh Muhibbullah: Death resembles a bridge which unites friends. Perfect saints make their statement on the basis of their perfect knowledge and they say man can not obtain perfection without death. 

Dara Shikoh: What is the difference between love and affliction?

Shaikh Muhibbullah: Affliction is a staircase leading to love.

Thus, the Sheikh's letters are very important for a proper evaluation and explanation of Wahdat-ul-Wujud and puritanical reforms of the Islamic faith and Tasawwuf His letters are exceedingly frank and militant in the assertion of the superiority of Wahdat-ul-Wujud. Therefor, it can safely be said that these letters explain Sheikh's ideas about Wahdat-ul-Wujud firmly and without inhibition. The letters explain the Shaikh's concepts on Wahdat-ul-Wujud and make apparent his broadly based humanitarian outlook. However, the importance of the Sheikh's letters is far reaching, though no new mystical and religious outlook can be glanced from the Sheikh's letters. However, his letters answer both theological and mystical questions and shed full light on the cultural, religious and social aspects of the 17 century Indian life,


  1. Muhibbullah Allahabadi, Shaikh. Tarjamat-ul-Qur'an MSS (Persian). India Office Library 1357.
  2. Alvi, Muhammad Masud Anwar. Shah Muhibbullah Allahabadi. Ma'rif, Darul Musannifin, Azamgarh, 1984. p.139.
  3. Muhibbullah Allahabadi, Shaikh. Sharah-e-Fusus-al Hikam MSS (Persian), Maulana Azad Library, Abdul Hai Collection 52, A.M.U., Aligarh.
  4. Muhibbullah Allahabadi, Shaikh. Anfas-ul-Khawas. MSS (Persian). India Office Library, 1279.
  5. Alvi, Masud Anwar. Shah Muhibbullah Allahbadi. Ma'rif, Darul Musannifin, Azamgarh, 1984. p. 145.
  6. Muhibbullah Allahabadi, Shaikh. Risalah-e-Haft Ahkam. MSS (Persian). India Office Library, 1024. Cf. Syed Ather Abbas Rizvi. History ofSufism in India, vol. 2. New Delhi, Munshiram Memorial, 1978, p.270. 7. Alvi, Masud Anwar. Shah Muhibbullah Allahabadi. Ma'rif, Darul Musannifin, Azamgarh, 1984. p. 144.
  7. Muhibbullah Allahabadi, Shaikh. Aqaid al-Khawas. MSS (Persian). India Office Library 1392. 9. Rizvi, Syed Athar Abbas. History of Sufism in India. New Delhi: Munshiram Memorial, 1979, p.271.
  8. Muhibbullah Allahabadi, Shaikh. Maghalit al-Ammah. MSS (Persian). India Office Library 1395. 11. Alvi, Masud Anwar. Shah Muhibbulah AUahabadi. Ma'rif, Darul Musannifin, Azamgarh .1984, p. 144.
  9. Muhibbullah Allahabadi, Shaikh. Ibadatul Khawas. MSS (Persian). India Office Library 1002.
  10. Alvi, Masud Anwar. Shah Muhibbullah Allahabadi Ma'rif, Darul Musannifin, Azamgarh. 1984, p. 143.
  11. Muhibbullah Allahabadi, Shaikh. Taswiyah. MSS (Persian). Maulana Azad Library, A.M.U., Aligarh. Alvi, Masud Anwar. Shah Muhibbullah Allahabadi. Ma'rif, Darul Musannifin, Azamgarh. 1984, p. 145.
  12. Muhibbullah Allahabadi, Shaikh. Manazir-e-Akhassul Khawas. MSS (Persian). Maulana Azad Library, A.M.U., Aligarh. 
  13. Muhibbullah Allahabadi, Shaikh. Maktuhat. MSS (Persian). Maulana Azad Library, A.M.U., Aligarh. Cf. Nizami, K.A. Fikr-0-Nazar (Urdu), Aligarh Muslim University Press, A.M.U., Aligarh, 1964, p. 25
  14. Alvi, Masud Anwar. Shah Muhibbullah Allahabadi. Ma'rif, Darul Musannifin, Azamgarh. 1984, p.140-142
 Shaikh Muhibbullah Allahabadi
Works of Shaikh Muhibbullah Allahabadi

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