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Shah Muhibbullah Allahabadi interpretation of wahdat ul wajood.


Wahdat al wajood
Shah Muhibbullah Allahabadi interpretation of wahdat ul wajood.

Oneness of Being from the point of view of Shaikh Muhibbullah Allahabadi on the basis of his treatise

'At-Taswiya'


As earlier has been pointed out the most important work of Shaikh Muhibbullah which contains his main opinions and beliefs and which presents his Chief ideas about oneness of Being, is the short treatise"

"التسوية بين الافادة والقبول".


Shaikh himself is the first person who did the translation and commentary of it with not much detail, in the Persian language, so that it may be a guide for every person who faces difficulty in understanding the Arabic texts. And in it, he explains and clarifies nicely his beliefs on the basis of "فصوص الحکم" (the Bezels of wisdom). These are the same beliefs which have been mentioned in the collection of his letters, which have been addressed to different peoples and about them has been mentioned earlier. The last ideas which are found in this commentary can be divided into few chapters.
The reality of oneness of Being and its permeation in all forms and things.
Shaikh begins (the sermon of his writing with these words "All the praise is for the person who existed with every thing which was existed and who prostrated with every thing which prostrated."


الحمد لمن وجد بكل ما وجد وسجد بكل ماسجد


It is the praising sentence of the preface of the treatise, which describes the basis and gist of the beliefs of Shaikh about existence and its impulse in the oneness of Being are seen. The proving oneness of being in every thing which with a quality and title of being, could be attributed. In other words from "Kalma Shahadat" 

لا اله الا اللــــــــه

which is meaning in the language of the mystics is "There is no being except Allah" in (كلمه طيبة) Shaikh in the meaning of Kalma Tayyaba .(لا وجود الا الله) his letter to Shaikh 'Ataullah has written, "Listen from Khawaja 'Abdullah - Imami Isfahani who is in the series of Khawajas, and is from the companions of Khawaja 'Alauddin has said in the meaning of "Kalma Tayyaba" (کلمہ طیبہ) that is that the meaning of the negation is turning of plurality forms and things towards only one who is aim and goal of all wayfarers and proving means to see to that entity in all forms and to see all of them the same entity. So La Ilaha (لا اله) means that all the imagined forms other than that entity are negated and they all come from that one entity and except Allah  (الا الله) is that one entity which appears in all the forms.

(1) Like wise in the third letter quoting Tafsir Baizawi on the commentary of Kalma Tayyaba (کلمہ طیبہ) on the principle of those who believe in oneness of Being, says: "The above mentioned Imam has said in the meaning of "Kalma
Tayyaba" (کلمہ طیبہ) is that "negation" means to turn back the manyness of forms to that oneness of Being which is the aim of all wayfarers and the meaning of "proving immutability is to see that oneness of Being in all the forms and to see all of them the same. So oneness of Being La Ilaha ( لا اله) means that all the imaginary forms other than oneness of Being are denied and they are attributed to the oneness of Being and except one (ا لا الله) means that, oneness of Being is one who appears in these forms.

(2) Shaikh Muhibbullah in specification of every type of praise for Holy glorious one in his translation pointing out the different grades of praise (حمد), says "Praise with tongue, love and sincerity in the heart, the service, obedience of the elements is right for that Essence of the Real which is found with existence of every Being.....

(3) The praise and eulogy in three kinds counts, the eulogy by tongue which is in the first place, secondly, love and sincerity of heart and inner side which is rank of special slaves of God (Allah) and the third one is serving and obedience by elements which is collection of all the three grades and is reserved for the most selected persons and it is rank of the saints, prophets and perfects in the knowledge of Divine that whatever comes from them and every work which they do or words which come on their tongue and whatever they practice,
with love and inclination towards wife, children, relatives and close persons, all these are for acquisition of pleasure of God (Ilahi) and for discharging the degrees of praise and eulogy are for
Divine portal. As their daily affairs acknowledge this, i.e. "That all my prayer, my worship, my life and my death for Allah (God) who is Lord of the Worlds."

إنَّ صلواتی و نسکی و محیای و مماتی لله رب العالمین

So all the praiseworthy qualities forth Divine Essence and known
that is origin and main thing of Being and there is not any Being except Him and everything is that Being and other than Him is not Being. He is Divine Essence is known that He is Being in the Being of every being, either he is tender or douse (good or bad).

As Junaid says 

(طلبته فى الصفاء وجدته في الكدر)

 I searched Him in purity I found Him in impurity" it means that impurity also is not other than Him. As everything come into existence is His Being and other than Him is unreal and false. As the Honorable prophet says "The truest words have been said by Labid."

(الا كل شي ما خلا الله باطل)

Lo ever thing except God (Allah) is false." i.e. that everything except truth is false. God (Allah) says: "Verily Allah (God) is truth and that which you call except Him is false."

ان اللہ ھو الحق و ان ما تد عون من دونہ ھو الباطل


Actually there eire names which you and your forefathers have given names. ' these are nothing but names which are given by you and your fathers, and God (Allah) did not reveal any sovereignty for them."

ان ھی الااٰسماء سمیتموھا انتم و آباوٰکم وما انزل اللہ بھا من سلطان


He in explanation of this meaning adds that "existence of Truth is the same Being of eveiy thing and Being (existence) of every thing is essence ot Being though His Essence is a rational thing, so on the basis of that fact that Being of eveiy thing will be the same Being of Essence, It is said
(سجد بکل ما سجد)
"That He prostrated with every thing which prostrated." "As in fact the laying in prostrate becomes prostrates by of every prostrating person from stars and idols, because there no one other than Him, will be existed in the circle of Being, on this basis who is prostrating and existed with the quality of Being will not be other than He. Therefore all the praises and prostrates belong to Him, though there may be difference in the names. Actually all things, whether external,
intellectual, trivial, universal, substances and accidents consist on a thing so that, that thing is distinguished with each other, due to which the bewilderment about essences occur; sometime
by entifications and some time by particular existences; yet all these in one thing which is origin of drawing away of the meaning of engerierated being is and they are sharing with each other so
they are origin of arranging of their effects and order and that is Being and all degrees of Being belong to one reality and to one Being root which manifests in different forms. There is one reality
which with these entifications has been determined and with these delimitations have been bound and in these manifestations has appeared and He is Reality of realities and Divine Essence.
And all these entifications are outwardness of His states and essential perfections and all commandments and effects are of His requirements.
Shaikh after Salat (prayer) and Salam (Peace) on the best plenipotentiaries and noblest prophets points out that this description "that is " oneness of Being and attributing of all praiseworthy qualities is to that Divine Discourse that all the prophets from beginning to end had spoken about it. God has
revealed this verse: "Wherever you go, there is face of God" ( اینما تولو افثم وجہ اللہ البقرہ ۱۰۰)
on all of them, and each one of them had appointed to convey this message. So it is not a new description that should cause wonder and it is also not against truth and reality that should be turned away from it. From Adam (peace be upon him) to the Last of the prophets (peace of God be upon him and his descendants) the basic o f the call of all the prophets was in one description and one word by all the prophets, was to call to absolute unity and its confirming and knowledging of different ranks that over and above of this limit is the Unity of Being. So though, apparently there are the practical commands and conditions of the communities which are due to the difference of their conditions and abilities. As for as then' original message concerns is the same which Shaikh wants to prove it. That is that except one Being is nothing in the world, and that the existence of truth and all perfections and qualities are from Him.The highest word is of Him, and all perfections are absorbed in Him. As in the sixth letter in the collection his letters in the definition of (علی اٰعلی) "on the Highest" quoting"
 فصوص الحکم Bezels of wisdom has pointed out this point. So High Himself is that who has all the perfection with whom all the existing entities and national relations are absorbed, so that no quality surpasses in it, whether it may be good from the point of common concent, rationally and religiously or it may be bad in common concent, rationally and religiously all these are one name of God."

فا لعلی بنفسہ ھو الذی یکون لہ الکمال الذی یستغرق بہ جمیع الا امور الو جودیہ والنسب القومیۃ بحیث لا یمکن ان یفوتہ نعت منھا سواء کان محمودۃ عرفا و عقلا و شرعا او مذمومۃ عرفا و عقلا و شرعا لیس ذالک الا بمسمی اللہ 

Likewise in a letter to Dara Shikuh about mystical knowledge and oneness of the prophets says: God (who is high) said: "Those are those persons to whom God showed right path so He guides them."
( اولئک الذین ھدی اللہ فیھدیم) The indication of those (اولئک) is towards the earlier prophets. So the words of the last prophet who follows the ways of the earlier prophets are the same. There is no doubt that practical commands of our prophet (Peace be upon him) were different from the practical commands of earlier prophets. Rather the commands of every preceding prophet were different of the former prophets. So the following of the Last prophet remained only in Oneness and acknowledging God
(Exalted). I'hus the above mentioned verse is the irrefutable prool and firm evidence on acknowledging and believing in Oneness believed by the former prophets.
In fact the Oneness has two kinds: unity o f the Necessity Being and Unity of Being. "The unity of Necessity Being is proving unity for particular Necessary and that the Necessary before anyone can not be, and unity of Beings is to proving unity of Being for all Beings. That is the being of all beings is only one and that Being is called Necessary and calling the noble word "La Ilaha illalah" by the name word of "Tawliid" (unity of God) by the common people is by its denotation is unity of Necessity, and by the elites its denotation is Unity of Being. As unity o f God has two kinds,
there is polytheism which is opposite of unity had also two kinds. The Saints group calls the first kind which is opposite of the unity of Necessity open polytheism and the second kind which is
opposite to unity of Being is called hidden polytheism.

Acquired Knowledge And Intuitive Knowledge

Shaikh after writing on the place of controversy between the philosophers and mystics, writes on his aim: "Know O Seeker of Truth, that the in te lle c tu a ls from the theologians and philosophers have said and believed that the Necessary (High) is the creating cause for the possible. These are those called Shaikh- Arabi in Al-Fas-sul Muhammadi, "the people of cause, so He is other than possible, and He is only as He is."

ان العقلاء من المتکلمین والحکما قالو ان الواجب تعالیٰ علۃ موجدۃ للمکن وھو لاء ھم الذین سماھم الشیخ العربی فی الفص المحمدی اصحاب العلۃ

People of Cause:


These intellectuals i.e. the group of the disciples of the rational intellect and people of considerative thinking of that group know that every thing which is on the basis of the scale of intellect is right and every thing which is out of the stage of intellect is not accepted by them and for this they open the gate of esoteric interpretation. He (Muhibbullah) points out the Shaikh-e-Arabi called this group in Fass-e- Muhammadi as people of cause.Basically, one of discourses which causes argumentation between the sages and theologians is about the place of origin of knowledge. As the scholars and philosophers believe that all the knowledge is acquired, which can be acquired by first and secondary prefaces and by getting the results. The main thing of all this acquired knowledge is also intellects, thinking reasoning and argumentation, but this method in the opinion of the saints has no value. Sheiikh himself in the letter number one about this says: "Everything which come by intellectual prefaces upon it should not be depended, because it is not knowledge but it is guess and surmise. So it is said in Fass-e-Ayyubi; "He knows everything. He is witness of every thing, to know through presence not through thinking, and than this is guess and surmise and it is not knowledge at all."

وھو بکل شئ علیم وھو علی کل شئ شھید لیعلم عن شھود لا عن فکر و ھو العلم الصحیح وما عداہ حدس و تخمین و لیس بعلم اصلاً

He in another of his treatise, "Haft Ahkam" (seven commands) about the description of inability of intellect to know God says: "It is said by the complete God-addicted man, and man of research and accuracy by ecstatic and mystical state Shaikh Mohi al-Din-Ibn-Arabi (the Holy), in the preface of FutuhatMakkiya" in the chapter one hundred seventy of the chapter of the above mentioned took. That is the sick intellect and mean thinking, does not find way towards ascending to the true knowledge of truth and knowledge of informality of Divine: He also says "may God sanctify his secret" "that intellect is incapable in finding way to God. And to understand God without God
cannot be impossible.
He also says that Sahikh (may God sanctify him) has mentioned in many places of Futuhat and Fusus al~Hikarn that the intellect by using thinking never becomes of any use in knowledge ofTruth. Some of sayings of Futuhat have been quoted in Manazir Akhassul-Khawas, and one of them also has been mentioned, so that you may understand that how the esoteric true reality will be. And it is that which was known by God (High) that thinking power which is preface of intellect in other than prinmalities is of not beneficial and except refuting Divine texts and the prophet on tradition which are about God (High) will do nothing. God having compassion and mercy on the sick intellect and weak thinking said: "Allah warns you against your soul, and Allah is kind with the slaves."

(یحذرکم اللہ نفسہ و اللہ رووٰف بالعباد)


As if God (High) says that we in this warning compassion and mercy showed to you, the people of intellect, as I know that your intellect by using thinking power does not prove anything which
we prove about our truth by the tongues of the messengers, and refutes and falsifies that, with His arguments that eternal misfortune and deprivation from belief will be your share.So the prophet of God by the order of God prevented the people of intellect from this idea and closed the way of their thinking about the real truth and every one of them said about God (High) which, was according to his intellect and thinking. So negated every thing from them which proved other thing by them.
Shaikh in his third letter opposed clearly people of the Scholastic  theology and the talks which are about the rank o f Essence and attributes, and says after the elaborating: "So the trail of people
of the Scholastic theology should leave as in the first Fateha of Fawateli is mentioned that Rabi' from Imarn-e-Shafi'ee narrates "the books of Scholastic theology do not enter in the books of knowledge.So accordingly which in the opinion o f the mystics has importance is spiritual vision and witnessing, no complete perception and knowledge is the knowledge of spiritual unveiling and sapience and it is not the acquired knowledge". So when the reality of acquired knowledge is it has been described. As Shaikh (sanctified) says in Fas-e-Ozairy; "That the prophets and saints about the knowledge by God are on one opinion contrary to the formal scholars.
"As the prophets, peace be upon them,, do not take their knowledge but from special Divine revelation, so their hearts unobstructed by the intellectual thinking because the intellect with thinking sight is unable to perceive the things as they are and informing about them is incapable to perceive the thing which can not be achieved by the direct experience. So the complete knowledge remained only in the Divine unveiling and the truth can be disclosed with the vision and sight by removing
the curtains. So the old, new, existing, non-existing, impossible, necessary and lawful things as their realities and entities are."He says that the Prophets and great saint have one opinion about the knowledge by God constantly to the scholastic scholars.
In the belief of Shaikh the true knowledge through intellect and deep thinking is impossible. Even if it is be achieved by external things which are beyond usual and known laws, the intellect is unable and incapable to understand and affirm the things. The example which Shaikh gives is bringing the throne of Queen of Saba (Bilqis) in twinkling of the eye, from the intellect point by the plea of long distance, is unthinkable. At the time, when the affirming and recognizing of the throne was asked from Bilqis, she with doubt and hesitation says, that apparently it is the same. Because on the basis of the command of intellect, bringing of the throne in such part of time looks impossible. When Solomon (Sulaiman) said to Bilqis: is your throne like this? Bilqis said: "as it is the same." A perfect mystic in this reply, has a wonderful thinking, that Bilqis, in veiro of the long distance said, "it is the same." otherwise it was the throne of Bilqis. Shaikh in the first letter points out towards this thing and by quoting Fass-e-Adami explains:

ھذا لا یعرفہ عقل بطریق نظر فکری بل ھذا الفن من الا دراک لا یکون الا عن کشف الھی


"The intellect does not know it through thinking glance but this art is from perception which comes only by Divine illumination.
He adds: "yes, if the intellect given up the above mentioned method and makes peace and becomes the friend of heart ... its impossible with heart becomes possible."Likewise in another description in his letter to Dara Shukuh in reply of his question that which knowledge is the greatest barrier. He knew the formal knowledges as the greatest barrier and said: "As long as the knowledges are in between, it is impossible that the truth becomes open and clear for the people of those knou'ledges. As far as that knowledge concerns which the prophet particularly has been ordered to ask it more, in the verse "O My Lord, increase me in knowledge." (رب زدنی علماً) The knowledge is that which is existed only in truth and in every good thing and other than of it is the essence of it and reaching a slave to the truth is only through this knowledge.
The point, which the Shaikh emphasizes about the people of intuition and people of esoteric knowledge is their exonerated from mystical and ecstasy state. Generally, one of the problems on which, about the Gnostics, the objections are made by taunting and mean fellows is their being busy with ecstasy and rapture and their forgetfulness of religion and common consent. The finding defect is by the person, who propagandizes to wear patched garments and who are not men of pure heart and are not drinkers o f draft of holy wine, who with weak pleas and unsuitable tricks keep themselves away from performing obligatory rituals and religions affairs and they are objected by the people who are objecting on minor things. Because of this. Shaikh at many places when he mentions the words of Shaikh-e-Akbar about them, he says these words: "Perfect mystic
and Shaikh who is attending union, are away from mystical and ecstatic state."
He also says that great people of Allah are exalted from ecstatic and rnystical state and lie lays emphasis on the importance and observing the religion in Sufism. So in the Book 'Abadut ul-Khawas says; "The sufy should work and in isolation should remain . He should keep h im s elf busy with prayers and invocations and in the way of ascetic practices should move, as noble Divine law says, otherwise all was satanic and he will be from those whose business did not give profit,
 (وهو من الذين ما ربحت )
But in that journey and spiritual wayfaring, his capital will also go from his hand and he would become from those whose prayer went astray and they think that they are doing good.

فمن ضل سعیھم فی الحیاۃ الدنیا وھم یحسبون انھم یحسنون صنعا 
So in every walk and journey, balance of religious law should be in the hand of the seeker so that he may distinguish between good and bad. Though, some time he may fall in evil, then the service of perfect spiritual guide helps him which can not be go in hundred forty days (chillah), provided the seeker is capable.
The Shaikh, also thinks necessity of following religious guide and also his necessarily following Quran and Sunnah. So in the tenth letter addressing to Shaikh Abdur Rahim says "So the sayings of great people of Chisht with saying of others should see and likewise their deeds should watch. If he finds the deeds and sayings of those greats are according to the Book (of Allah) and Sunnah, then he should know that the illuminations and gnosis of those greats were with forethought and getting is the essences of the path of that great. So one should see that every saint what has said about catharsis, trusting ascetic practice, spiritual strife, endurance and hunger.
At another place for advice in a letter to one of his friend who reproached him for following of the opinion of Ibn-e-Arabi, says: they objected that how by only words said in ecstasy and rapture by the tongue of pen o f Ibn-e-A'rabi, will bind the hand of intellect and how it can be stopped up to last word... If you see one page, you will, find that these poems or verses are not from the ecstasy and rapture. The reality of fit of ecstasy and mystical state has been mentioned above, that what is not liked by the Gnostics, is liked by the common people. He also said in the preface that this book is given to me by the prophet (prayer of Allah and peace be upon him) and said that this book shows so that the people may be benefited. And I did not increase and decrease a single word in the meanings."
He in explanation of ecstasy and rapture, dividing it into two chapters, says: "The ecstasy and rapture are of two kinds; one is like the condition of sleeping, though it is not called sleeper. At this time, if any thing from ecstatic man appears which is not liked by the noble religious law and knows it punishable. The noble saints find satisfaction from it and tolerate it and they do not punish him as they know that the ecstasy is due to sleepy condition." Otherwise the ecstasy and rapture is only Truth (High) and about subsistence and annihilation of the world, whatever they say in the ecstatic absorption and rapture, it must be accepted and fast and prayer are more necessary in the rapture and ascension (to the heavens) and is finding of what is  the meaning "you (alone) we worship" (إياك نعبد ). So a perfect saint like the prophet of Allah overpowered by ecstasy and in the throes of rapture in its earlier meaning never becomes. And Fusus is the gist ol Futuhat. These two books about the condition ecstasy and rapture have become into existence. He himself has said that if these secrets I do not write, I would be perished as the truth in ecstasy and repute does not become false. Otherwise hundred curses on that ecstasy and rapture in which the false is told. He in the 15th letter describing the real spiritual wayfaring says; "If wayfaring on the wayfaring of the great people of Allah, that the prophets and great compcinions like 'Ali (peace be upon him) and like him and great saints were they all did not make mistake in gnosis as the result of wrong will be wrong and the result of right will be right.He at various places in his w'orks, his discipleship to Shaikh-e-Arabi, with the title true wayfarer, has mentioned and at every place knows himself alotie as quoting of his words and of ail great saints. So in the sixth letter pointing to the objections made by Shaikh Mahmud Jaunpuri against him, has said: "To this poor man, Allama, Fahhama Mian Shaikh Mahmud Jaunpuri has written that Shaikh A'taullah quotes some of your sayings which are against rational arguments and I accept them and think them like the ambiguous verses of Quran." This slave wrote in the reply
that the slave, has said these words quoting them from Shaikh Arabi, otherwise this slave does not have the rank of speaking  such words from himself, it is that the imperfect thinicing of this poor man is the same which is yours."Shaikh A'rabi, intellectual arguments and thinking in the gnosis of God rejects... Shaikh A'rabi what said in ecstasy and mystical state has no metaphorical interpretation. And this poor man wrote that God (Exalted) with His previous and following providence has exem.pted Shaikh A'rabi from ecstasy and mystical state." At another place pointing to the objection of people of Jaunpur says; "I come to my aim to which I pointed in the first writing that there are some places which require inquiry about the preludes, which are attributed to you by the group of Jaunpur and people like them and say that he denies the Creator and such other things
are from him." In introduction with emphasis on the difference of point of the two dispositions of Sufis and Scholastic people has been laid down. "So this thing should not remain hidden to the Honorable that denial of the Creator by a person who makes difference between sky and earth and distinguish existent from non-existent, how it will come from him. Of course the thinking
of the men of union from the prophets and perfect saints is different from thinking o f the people o f intellect from the scholastic and philosophers... Hence the great people say that God (Ilah) of intellectuals is their topic. Shaikh (Holy) says in Futuhat "They worship a Lord which they make by
themselves."
(أنهم يعبدون ربا ينتمونه من عند أنفسهم )

Therefore between the contemplation of the great people of truth and the beliefs of the scholastics are total by different. In fact the point on which, Shaikh puts emphasis is real and  actual Sufi, so neither the people of ecstasy and rapture are false, nor they want to bring others to their fold, nor they are recluse from the world and its belongings. But by following the biography of the prophet of Allah, and true companions and Saints they sit and deal with the creatures of Allah, as well as the Religions and worldly duties they perform and for a short time they do not forget Allah. In his letter to the crown prince Dara Shikuh who was follower of Qadri way, asked him about the affairs relating to the welfare of the people, so this thing should see clearly that how Shaikh, considering his position and place of his government and particularly looking formation and composition of Indian Union and mixing o f the various religions in it, replied. He says: the truth is that the thinking of the welfare of creatures of God should be always in the minds of the ruler, whether he is believer or disbeliever, as the creature of God has been created by God and the Master of this place and the person of this place who treats with compassion on every pious and vicious and believer and non-believer is the prophet o f God,
(Prayer and peace be upon him). As it is described in Futuhat and it has come in Quran. "And we have sent you not but as mercy for the mankind." 
( وما أرسلناك إلا رحمة للعالمين ) 
Which is general like Rabb-el-A'alameen. In the same letter at some other place has been described: "Likewise says about the person of patched garment who has been ordered for that by the verbal order from God (Exalted) not by the given order by the person like Hazrat Ghauth-ul-A'azam, as they were ordered by God (Exalted) to free disposal of verbal order not the given order (may God sanctify his noble secret) and
the other people mdio are the great men of Allah may be and dispose freely, and others even to a small point do not surfers for a minute limits of Islamic law  Qutub who is only one in the whole world... he does not give up means of living and does not give up marriage inspite of capability on it and does not choose hunger.but only at the time of keeping fast. He further adds quoting the chapter one hundred and six from "Futuhat" "the hunger of the great people of Allah which is not in the fast is the hunger of distraction, that power of keeping it away does not have. So a spiritual pupil should not surpass the lawful and sunnah limits and lawmaker (of Islamic law) has prevented from choosing hunger but only in the condition of fast and in condition of distraction and hunger in the opinion of the great people, it is leaving of satiation and opposing the soul..

Relation of the necessary being and contingent with each other 


So when Shaikh describing the place of dispute and view point of the rationales and people of intellect says: They (i.e. rationales) know the Necessary (Exalted) Being, is creating cause of every
contingent and they know the contingent as its effect, so Necessary (Exalted) on this calculation will be impossible, because creating cause of every thing will be other than that thing, so between contingent and Necessary separation will occur. Then it will increase as the reality is other than that, on which the above mentioned group is, therefore between them pushing and biting has occurred and each one of them taunt and blame each other. While in comparison of them the view point of
the Divine illumination and intuition is described like this: Every contingent in existence is in need o f the Necessary Being (Exalted) which is obvious, as every one after perception of meaning of contingent commands that very contingent is in need of the Necessary Being, directly or indirectly, and in this command the people of ecstasy and people of arguments join. So the people of ecstasy in comparison of the people of arguments believe that the contingent is not other than the Necessary Being (Exalted). That is when the separation of essence of bubble and water can not be accepted, so the connection of the contingent and Necessary Being is like this. So the Necessary Being (Exalted) will be Reality of the realities and every reality of the realities will be a singular from the singulars in such a way that every particular body will be a singular of the singulairs of abslute body.

He further adds' 

فكل ممكن موجود عين حقيقة لذا يحمل عليه وهي عين حقيقة الحقائق كما يحمل الجوهر علي ألا نسان مثلا 

"So every existed contingent is His Truth itself, therefore it is attributed to Him. It is itself a Reality of Realities, for example, as the substance attributed to human being."
As the Necessary Being (Exalted) will be attributed to every existing, so it is allowed, as a part of human being who is an animal and rational being is attributed to human being, because the Necessary Being is the name of rank o f Reality of Realities, so that no existing thing will be of that rank itself, as animal is the part of human being, will be with the condition of "Nothing" and that will not attributed to human being and human being will not be that part itself. So every existing contingent will be its own reality, and reality of every existent being will be the Reality of Realities itself. Hence the Reality of realities will be attributed to every reality from contingent realities in the opinion of people of ecstasy. So if that Reality of the Realities which is origin of ever reality of contingent realities would not be, then no reality from the realities would not have existed and not any existent being would have been found. As every existent being will be of its own reality and every reality its e if will be the Reality o f the Realities.So every existent being is away from its own reality,
and the same reality is away from its origin which is the Reality of Realities. Therefore, in the Fass-e A'isavi it has been said that "If He would not have been, then we would not have been. (ولولاه ولولا نا )
So in the people of ecstasy the Reality o f the Realities will be attributed to every reality from the contingent realities, as the substance which is a reality of realities will be attributed to human being in the opinion of people of proof, they say that human being is substance. He says in Fass-e-Shuaibi: "The man of finding reality sees plurality in one as he knows that object of denotation of Divine names, though they are different and multitude in their realities, yet they are only one, so this plurality is rational in only one so there in epiphany plurity is known in one being, as the matter is found in every form inspite plurity of lorms and their difference returns in reality to one substance,
which is it  matter " "Verily the gnostic is who sees truth in every thing, but he sees it entity of every thing."
In short the Truth (Exalted) is Absolute Being and a rational substance, "He is All Encompassing of every thing."
(الا انہ بکل شئ محیط)
Like encompassing of substance to all individual substance."So His Hidden name is the reality o f human being and His Exterior name is individual human being that is, the reality of human being is the Hidden name of the Truth, and individuals are the Exterior name of the Truth. The Hidden name of the Truth will be the; realities of existent and the Exterior name of truth is existent. "So, He is the Exterior, reality in every reality and He is the Inner reality in every reality, yet in understanding of the person who said that the world is form of His identity. He is Exterior Name as in meaning He is spirit of what appears. He is Inner Being. So His relation as it appears from the forms of the world is the relation o f governing and shaping spirit, so, for the example, the limit of human being, its inner and exterior being and thus is every limited. So the reality is limited with every limit, it is not con trolled and not encompassed and the limits of every form o f them are not known but only according to every forms which are found in every world. So this makes the limit of the truth, then only that person known its limit who knows the limit of every form.And its getting is unthinkable so the limit of the truth is in the letter number third confirming of this menacing came "I am bewildered that having Fusus-ul-Hikarn, why there is need to some other book and why relation of world to the Truth (Exalted) is not known. In Fass-e-Nuhy it is described that the truth is limited with ever}'- limit and forms of the world... And here the relation of every thing will be the relation of world to the Truth (Exalted) and to the saints, and here the continuous
opposition and dispute of the scholastic people appear and from this point they do excommunication of the people of Truth not in other pursuits. In Fass-e-Ilyasi is: "When Allah (Exalted) gave the intellect gnosis with the manifestation, His gnosis was known, so He was declared in comparable at a place and He was affirmed similarity at a place and saw the permeation o f truth with existence in the subtle and elementality form, and no relation remained for Him, and He is seen as the Truth itself. It is the perfect gnosis... which is allowed by the religious laws descended by God."Shaikh knows the external world, the manifestation of the external name o f the Truth (Exalted). And actually,
realization of every name is around appearing of that name. .. as he said: "When you saw creatures you saw the First and the Last and the Apparent and the Hidden"
( اذا رايت الخلق رايت ألا ول والاخر ).

Why the scholastic do not understand that the apparent name of the Truth (Exalted) will not be except the external world and every name is carried to another name, so the exterior will become the interior itself and the interior will  become the exterior itself. To confirm this meaning says quoting
Fass-e-Shoaibi: "The divinity is seeker o f Divine thrall and Attribute of God is seeker of vassal (fedele), so there is no of its entity without Him. Then said:"In fact and in justice the Attribution of God is Essence of the Real who is independent from all the world."In the 14th letter about the realization of the names of Divine is described:"The person paying attention to create every thing other than God is the Divinity with its orders and relations and additions, and it is which requires effects because the Dominant without overpowered and the powerful without object of power is capability in existence and power and it is unthinkable practically." So for example, if the Nourisher capability of nourishing has, then the nourished the capability of being nourished should have, and if the Nourisher is existed then the nourished will also be existed. If the first will be in power the second will be in power and if it will be practically the second will be in practical, otherwise the ineffectual in the names of the Reality will occur.
In the 15th letter explains that all the names of the Reality are in every existent. And this should be imagined that the existence of those names will be other than existence of beings as the above mentioned names do not have existence in themselves and existence of names is the existence of the world itself and it is not other than the existence of the world. "Thus you find in the forms of minerals, vegetation's, animals and skies. So glory be to the Person who made the thing's to appear the things and He is their entity, so my eye did not see any thing other than His Essence and my ears did not hear other than His words. Every entity in the world is His entity and every person is always in His dream. Likewise in the 15th letter says; So the perfect mystic is that to him actual thing becomes unveiling and except one entity does not find, for example Zaid may be Called either the Truth of Creature or God and divine thrall. So in existent being is not proved except one, and that every two names are two grades in one existent being: consequently, he says in Futuhat and .F'usus:
"If you saw creature you did not see the Truth and if you saw Truth you did not see creature, but you see this in this and this in this."

( ان شهدت خلقالم تر حقا وان شهدت حقا لم تر حقا  لكن شهد هذا في هذا في هذا  )


The Truth and Creature are grades in one existent being which is the first and last grade, and the exterior and interior. So one thing has many grades. In some existent being those grades are
apparent, as every existent being is Divine unveiling and manifestation of useful name or harmful name, but it is unveiling of the two above mentioned names looking toward different places. So one thing looking toward one grade is the First intellect and looking towards second grade spirit and looking towards another grade is heart. In this way, the human words are looking towards grade of human soul, and catharsis of those words from cutting is cutting of soul and looking towards the grade of spreaders of those words is word, and looking towards the graxle of cutter and cutting of that is the ends of the poem and couplets.
In the 15th letter, the degrees o f the entity on the basis of principle of Absolute Being and on Being the determined existence an illusion, is described. "It is known that the Reality 
(Exalted) is Absolute Being and it is also known that Absolute Being is itself determined existence. And except determined existence there is no other existence. The existence the Reality' which is the Reality itself on which the existent will not used as well as the using the word existed is metaphoric... when it is said that existence of the reality (Exalted) is the Reality itself so it means that there is an Absolute Being only and that Absolute Being appears in every entity and there is nothing except that Being, but it will be void from absolute quality and Necessity, so in every number only one existed. Though, in Reality, oneness will be isolated and void, so there was no number except one Being. Then he said the oneness of Being is unveiled before wayfarer only when he knows the existent is one. That is, that Zaid is existed and his Lord will be with him, that the essence of Zaid Will be the same soul which accepted form, it is not so that Zaid is existed and his Lord has another entity which will be outside Zaid. What the great saints have said is that Zaid and all world is illusion and imagination. The meaning of that word is that strangeness of whole world is particular form of the Reality, on which the scholastic and imperfect wayfarers are in illusion and imagination. Shaikh again writing on the meaning being the world in illusion and imagination in 6th letter says: "I know from the books of the Saints of Allah that the Truth is the entity of Reality and world is illusion and imagination..." Actually, know it, that whenever some person sees with reflection of ray of eye sight and in his illusion and imagination comes that it was resembling and shadow of that face, not the picture of mirror that is one entity but with illusion and imagination it looks two. Likewise is the world that its duality is by the illusion and imagination; so injustice of the elders is that they thought about the real things, they talked about the one spectator only. In the letter 13 says: It should not remain hidden that formal existence which will be the existence of the world, is only illusion 
and the Real existence and sure Existed Being is the Truth only... The Real Existent is one and the existence of the world is additional illusion and imagination. In spite of this command and interdiction, Gabriel, revelation, messenger, nation, reward, punishment, pleasure and pain are right. And killing of fighting unbeliever is right. And making difference between confidants and wives is necessary. The other remaining orders of this world and last world are according with them. In the opinion of Shaikh it is only perfect Gnostic who is beyond illusion and imagination and who can surpass the duality and find the reality of the world. As he in the same letter points out "It is latter said that as the saints are nothing, so know that their getting down from some other place and is from Absolute Being, and there are only one, two or three individuals in the world in every time who know that every form in every epiphany, in every contemplated being and in imaginal locus witnessing is essence unveiler like the picture of mirror, that duality of the picture is illusion and there is nothing except the picture of Zaid that the mirror is in his in front. So the world like a mirror should see, that is, its duality is illusion. So there is no difference between the Truth and the world except distinguishing the realities, so there is God and nothing is with Him (Appraised) He was always like this and always will be like this, nothing co-exists with Him, His co-existence is as suit Him and is good for Him." 

فا لله ولاشئ معه سبحانه ولم يزل كذ لك ولا يزال كذلك لا شئ معه 


So saying, the Reality Being (Exalted) is with us will be according to the information of the Ideality. The intellect does not tell anything about that co-existence, as it is not co-existence in two things. So we do not say that we are with Him that it is not according to the intellect and it is not command of Islamic law'.

So the Gnostic of the Truth sees Truth in every thing and sees Essence of that thing, as "So the Gnostic is he who sees the truth in every thing but he sees it essence of every thing."In brief, the Reality Being (Exalted) is Absolute Being and a Rational Substance, yet he is all Encompassing as a substance encompasses every individual substance.



Continuous Creation


Likewise He will be Pure Being and pure rational and High genus. After this, affirming the words that the Reality Being(Exalted) will be Absolute Rational, by the words of Shaikh A'rabi which has been described in Fase Shauibi, points out: "What a nice thing Allah said about the world and its changing." He said about a group but about most of the world: "But they are in confused doubt about a new creation, so they do not know there newing the thing with breaths, in a new creation in a unique

essence." That is what a nice thing said by the Reality Being(Exalted), that all the worldly men are in new creation in a unique essence and in a single matter that will be Essence of Divine unity. As forms of the world for the Essence of Divine unity will be like accidents for a single substance. And the accidents change in every moment and the one substance remains. God has said; "Were we then tired with the first creation? Nay, They are in confused doubt about new creation."

افعیینا با لخلق  ألا ول بل هم في لبس من خلق جديد 

That is, were we tired and incapable of creation and producing of the first, so how we can be tired from creating and producing second time." He adds that the group of intellectuals, but of all the veiled ones, have described this verse about the condition of the next world and they do not know that this condition at every time and in every existence is found: "But they are in confused doubt about new creation" That is; they are in curtain about the new creation and do not understand that. So denying this condition by the veiled is like denying the condition of the next world by disbeliever. They do not find renewal of creation in every existence with every soul,and every moment for them looks like the previous moment.

Identity of  Necessary Being and His Essence

Shaikh about describing the relationship of the Necessary and Contingent, points out that from that view there a type of a relationship o f construction and constructor and need of construction for the constructor is known and said that the world for its existence is in need of builder, as a house needs the builder while the relation of builder with house is only in giving it shape, it is not in existence. The builder is one of the equipment it is not an agent cause. In fact the relation of the world with the Necessary Being is like the relation of bubble with water so that it in it existence and survival is in need of the water. As the origin of bubble is water and origin of everything is that on which that thing is built. So the Necessary Being (Exalted) is origin and beginning of every contingent and it is not creating cause of the contingent, except when the creating cause is in the meaning of the beginning.
Shaikh in the 4th letter has described this meaning with these words: "The relation of the world with Allah is the relation of contingent with the Necessary Being and created with creator, so for the work in the eternity is no rank of existentiality, because it is the rank of the Necessary Being, so He is Allah and there is nothing with Him, whether the world is existed or not-existed. So who imagined between Allah and world difference according to advancing the existence and delay of contingent in it, it is unrong imagination and it has no reality." Its reply is that this thing became confusing for you and for other friends, as the movement of the key is never given the rank of moving hand, and only
words and sayings will not get the rank of the soul, as the rank of One is last and the rank of One is first. So there will not be difference between Allah and world, because by denial of world of  Divinity it will become ineffective and the Divinity will not be ineffective, and the Divinity will be permanent, subsistence,nourishing, avenger and lasting.
So in the view point o f the rationalists it is thought that according to that it is necessary that creator of a thing should be existent. "The people of intellect have said that it is necessary that the Necessary Being (Exalted) should be existed. Shaikh, removing the illusion o f additional existence and concrete
existence and existent, adds: "So any one of them who says that the existence of Necessary Being will be His essence, that is, the essence of Necessary will be absolute essence or in other words,
that it be absolute existence, he becomes free from discussion. As in this case the existence is not addition to the essence but it is concrete existence. There is no discussion in naming the
Necessary Being, as Existentialist because this dissimilarity of existence does not delimit the necessary.To describe that how the existence of the Necessary and contingent will be one,
what he says is about similar to the meaning of common existence, after that, Mulla Sadra is describing the oneness of Being becomes busy saying as meanings of human being among
the sons of human being are common, the meaning of existence also among all the existent is common. That is, as human being which is derived from Zaid, A'mar and Khalid is absolute substance, so their existence will be essence of existence of A'mar, zaid and Khalid, The absolute necessary is also like this and likewise are remaining detached. So the existence of the Necessary will be essence of the contingent and existence of the First intellect will be the essence of the first sphere which is encompassing all the world. With this hierarchy of the cosmos, with spiritual realities, will be the manifestation of God.
As the manifestation of reality of human being is in the form of Zaid's manifestation of God in the world is through its creation and manifestation o f every material substance is only through one material substance. As the First Intellect which is the manifestation of the first sphere is non-material substance and the first sphere is material substance, and the human being is also non-material substance and Zaid is material substance. The non-material substances, are ten and material substances which are manifestation of non-material substances are ten. The human being is non-material and Zaid which is material is the manifestation of the 10th intellect. Likewise every upper intellect contains the lower intellect and it is its epiphantic form. As animal contains the human being and every lower contained the upper, as human being is contained in animal. So the human being which is most super-elict is contained in the 10th intellect and in that, which is above it. So essence of everything is the reality of that thing. Any way by destruction of form, the essence will never be perised and from this point in essence and reality God is the All-Rich and not in need of all existents and every existent is in need of Him. "Verily God is the All-Rich and you are poor. 
(الله غني وانتم ا لفقراء 
 He again affirming this meaning says; "Who did not say this, but said He is existed with the existence of impossible, did not escape."Shaikh, after that the definition of essence of human being by the opinion of intellectuals takes up, that by their point of view for example, the essence of human being is animal and speaking, consequently his essence is speaking animal and the remaining
attributes, for example, determination and other things are not subsistence with him. On the basis of this thing, he says: so even' thing is from power of essence. The attribution of all non materials is the Essence of Reality which is the Sphere of the Spheres, and every thing which is in it from the remaining spheres and elemental existent are such that if they are totally perished and any thing with the quality of existent does not remain existed, the Essence of Reality will remain eternally as He is safe from perishing and safe from annihilation, as it is said; "Verily Allah is not in need of the worlds.

(  ان الله غني عن العالمين ) 

But because of this the manifestation of the names and attributes at the Divine is through the world of creatures and all the existent. The relation o f the Truth with world is from the point of manifestation and need of the world for the Reality is from point of existence. In fact the existence of non-materials comes from catharsis. It is not so that any existence except the existence of epiphanic forms are manifested, and their existence is the same manifestation of orders and attributes of the Divine Being.


Attribution of Mohammad  Spirit and Gabriel



Shaikh on the basis o f this preface that the existence of non-materials is the same existence of epiphantic forms says that they do not have independent existence. In fact they are different manifestation of the Reality Being. A new point of view he points out that the perfect human being is the Spirit of Mohammad, which is collection of all supernal and low entities and each of two is existed in him and in fact these two worlds are nothing except spiritual and material powers which are encompassed by the perfect human being £ind Mohammadian Spirit. The Mohammadian Spirit which is called the first intellect, one soul and the human being kind but all the creatures are created from him. So this spirit is manifested in all the worlds; supernal and low entities, in other words spiritual and material. In the rank of his spirituality is the manifestation of all the names and
Divine qualities and mirror of the identity of the Reality Being, and from the point of material is vassal of the essence and attributed with the quality slavery (servitude ). Therefore regarding the all comprehensiveness, all other in this mirror of God showing are printed, likewise all noble manifestations who are the messengers, are the manifestation of that manifest. So Gabriel (peace be upon him) is also among them. And their relation is with him is relation of determined with the determining, and from this point, Gabriel in their tongue with Hazrat talked and also with every prophet in the language of that prophet. The heart of The Prophet is also the great Divine throne  and Lote tree of the limit, as Divine throne, actually is manifestation of Magnificence and place of Divine unveiling. It is place which is aloof of sides and highest Loci of vision and included all kinds of existent and Lote Tree of the Limit is last place where the creature can reach while moving towards God as after there is no other limit.
He in the 15th letter in the description of this meaning has described "Spiritual world which is world of ideas, the wayfarer is being dressed up with special dress by the hand of God and that dress is named by His name. He said and taught that wayfarer on the tongue of that form and dress o f the thing which was determined for that wayfarer as the spiritual and ideas world is quickly running out and disposing. So ignorance and veil say that the Reality Being (Exalted) in His own words which are
suitable the Reality Being said to Gabriel something and Gabriel in his word said something to Mohammad himself. The gnosis says that address was not made by the Reality Being (Exalted) and Gabriel to Mohammad himself but by the word of Mohammad, Here Molana Jalaluddin Rumi (Holy) said "Though Quran is from the tongue of the prophet, whoever says that the Truth Being did not say it, he is disbeliever. Speaking that I am Allah and there is No God but I" was inner reality of Moses and hearing of the words was essence of Moses. That is speech of
heart which is speaker in the opinion of the great saints. Longtime ago this humble man had written this in your presence, and its result was found in Fusus and Futuhat.(4-7) In the third letter again by quoting words of Shaikh A'rabi says: "After that in the chapter 239 said: "The existence is the truth and He is attributed with every quality."Then in the chapter 234 said; "The whole world is in intimacy with Allah but he does not feel, .so the intimacy of the world is only with Allah and the intimacy of the scholastic is indeed with their soulds not with Allah. Did they know they do not see from Allah (Exalted) except their form, and the intimacy occur only with the thing which he sees in Him and those who are not Gnostics they see the intimacy only with the stranger. Again he says: "The intimacy with Allah, when it takes place, it always remain with Him in every condition, so who became intimated with Allah in seclusion, he lost that intimacy in public.
The humble man long ago haid written, the man who wears the dress of Sufis who heard the word: 

إنني أنا الله لا إله إلا أنا 

Verily 1 am Allah and there is no God but I." It was essence of the person who said this and the person who said this was the essence of the Hearing that. That person in the reply wrote that Zaid is
essence of U'mar and U'rnar is essence of Zaid, so with this meaning became the union of the Hearing and that who said this. This humble man wrote that with this thinking the poor man and
that man showed anathema. When this humble man got Futuhat and this humble man studied the chapter 274, I found that, which Shaikh (Holy) said in the beginning o f this chapter.

Equalize of benefiting Existence and receptacle Existecnce


In another paragraph, Shaikh writes about equality and evenness of Existence in benefiting existence and receptacle existence. First, he points out to the opinion of the scholastic that: "Their opinion; that the creator and beneficial for the existence and likewise every beneficial thing, should be contrary
to its receptacle, is wrong." That is, as the beneficial thing is existed, the receptacle thing also should be existed. As ever thing as long as it does not exist, so the benefit for the other existing thing will be denied, likewise as long the continuity will not be there, it will not accept other thing. So accepting a thing to other thing requires the existentiality of receptacle and taker thing. In short, when a thing wants to benefit, there should a similar thing to accept it. In another place, he described this thing in these words: "If it is accepted that beneficial is existence of the necessary who will be possessor of existence, likewise, the every beneficial thing will be possessor of that thing, so I say that that preface does entail, that which has beneficial existence with a particular existence, would be other than existence of contingent."
In fact, Shaikh looking to the ranks of existence says: if the beneficial existence is in the rank of necessity and thinking about its essence is existed and receptacle existence in the rank of  possibility which essence does not require existence and non-existence but it is under Creator, so that if it brings existence, becomes existed or if it makes it non-existent become non-existed. Anyway in every condition of existence, both are equal, and it is not such that the existence of the thing would be dual and separated, so every one in away becomes separated from the other. So our existence is the same existence of the Necessary Being (Exalted) who is existed and possessor of existence. The scholar Gnostic has said in Fass-e-Isma'ili: "That is o truth seeker do not look towards the Truth (Exalted) in such away that you, separate the Truth (Exalted) from the Creator. And do not look toward creature and to make it to dress up other than the Reality. That is, they do not know  the Reality (Exalted) a separate existential and the creature another existential. As the existential is one, and do not look, towards creature, thinking the dress of existence of creature other than the existence of the Reality (Exalted) and do not keep the Truth (Exalted) aloof. Thinking about essence of the Truth and knowing the Truth aloof from the qualities of contingent and perfections of human being, and every thing. His essence as there nothing existed except the Truth and stood in the place of truth and in true and pure abode which is the place of union between aloofness and similarity. If you want to be at the place of the union then say the Truth and creature are existed, and if you want to be at the place of separation call every existent creature and call essence of ever) existent is the Truth, The attention should be paid to the fact that Necessity Being (exalted) has ranks and grades. The first: rank is of Essence which is before all other ranks and in this rank the Necessary Being will be in His aloofness, truth and actual possibility, in which there is no restriction.
Secondly the rank of Divinity is which requires names and qualities. And in this rank He is existent and His existence is in the forms of the world. According to opinion of Sufis Love is cause of manifestation of names and qualities, and in accordance with tradition. ”I was a hidden treasure, so I wanted that I should become known, so I cremated the creature so that I may become known," so the love of Divine decided that it in the forms of the world should be manifested and from this p o in t that commentator of the introduction and the scholar Jundi says. "Who said that He is existed Himself and the existence of the world is not His existence, he is ignorant of this thing and who claimed the two things and became courteous and said that He is essence of the existent with the forms o f the world, so he is perfect Gnostic." There fore if the love would not have been he would not have been manifested in Essence. Another description in reply of non-separation of existence is that the beginning of the world and Reality of the reality is essence of the Truth without any condition, so that He has no determination and no distinction from anything. He is attributed to existence.
And the Essence as it is, is aloof of that. So the Existence of that Necessary Being is attributed with it, which is common. As for the Necessary Being concerns there are two existences , one His own existence and that existence is eternal and permanent, and
the other, His existence with forms o f them as they are ephemeral and they are also His existence.
So after Shaikh quoting bringing possibility of the objectors on this thinking says explaining, if the intellectuals say that giving and benefiting some thing requires that the giver and benevolent should have that thing, so consequently it becomes necessary that creator who benefited the existence should be existed with another existence, we say that this thing is unthinkable... As the wind during the autumn season is cause of providing coldness, it is not cold itself but it is hot; the henna is useful in redness and it is itself not red or dyer who dyes cloth black, he himself is not black. In fact, the benefiting of cause is not from the genes of sensual giving, as for example, Zaid gave some gold to Khalid but its meanings are to produce some effect in something, which (effect) was earlier missing. Consequently, there is nothing effective in the world except the Truth Being. Though, apparently, some other thing is seen, as the Reality (Exalted) has put the governance of the world in the world, so governance of effect is by cause and governance of
condition is by the conditioned and son by father. Yet all those governance are the governance of the Truth and nothing except Him is effective and useful in the world. So every thing which is effective and useful, from the point of being effective, is the Truth Being, So effecting of heat and coldness is the Truth. Because: "Verily all power is for Allah."

ان القوة لله جميعا 

As all the power is from him and there is no action without the power of activity.
Though he has put the governance of work! in the world, yet the real power, action and governance is from Him- He is commanding in intelligible the  well as in unbounded entities, as He is susceptible of all the forms of world. Shaikh, pointing out to these facts which are not other than two kinds: effecting and affected, elaborates, as these two are nothing but one reality that according to its appearance in the ranks of pluralities, became two but the reality of each two is one. The thing which appears in every thing, it should be known of its origin and there should be some resemblance between the origin and branch. As earlier it is said that the Divine Love is causing creatures and producing and bringing out the world and on the other side, performing supererogatory prayers and obedience from the side of slave, is also the sign of love, which takes place.
In fact, love and passionate desire in slave is its effect between affecting, who is The Reality (Exalted) and between slave who is affected as it has been described in Hadith; "The slave continues
to come near to me with supererogatory prayers till i love him. After that the, Reality Being (Exalted) becomes ear, eye and other faculties of the slave. Therefore, Shaikh says describing that the Reality Being (Exalted) is ear, eye and other faculties of the salve which is effect of the Divine Love, and the Divine Love will be effect of your supererogatory prayers. He become obedient, so that you become lover, and become loved one so that The Reality Being (Exalted) becomes your ear ,eye and remaining faculties.
Accepting and affirming the Divine Love is on two kinds, either it is through Divine unveiling that the individual by this manifestation knows intuition and intuition, or a rational being believes in the prophet and Gnostics of the Divine illumination, and follows their commands and prohibitions and with this medium he affirms this thing, though he has not experienced with ecstasy. So, in fact: "He is the First, He is the Last that is, creature affected and caused, and He is Exterior Being, that is, changing and He is Inner Being that is He is safe from change." So the Reality is first of all that is the affecting cause and He is last of all, that is caused which accepts the effect, and He is exterior, i.e., that is changing, He is Inner Being, i-e,, He is safe and aloof from change, that is Essence. That is, everything is Reality and no other thing is Truth and there is no existence other than His existence and all others are not being, whosoever is existed is you.
In a later paragraph, on the basis of the verse:

 إنما أمره إذا عر عد شیئاً یقول له كن فيكون 


"Verily His command when He intends a thing (our command for a thing) is only that He (we) says to it, "Be!" and it is! Shaikh writes on the problem of creating and bringing a thing to be and again the relation between effecting and affected thing describes in other words. In description of this thing quoting the words of Shaikh Arabi in Fas-e-Salhi says: "He said in Fas-e-Salehi, if it would not have been in its powder (that in the power of the thing to whom He says Be) for becoming to be from its own soil at the time of this word, then it would have been and He would have created this thing." He about the relation of "bringing thing to be" knows with that thing itself and says by affirming with intellect that relation of bringing to be to the Scime thing returns not to the Reality .That is i.e., a thing, with the capacity which is concentrated in it by the command of Divinity (i.e.) that is, "Be" becomes into being. The capacity which is hidden in it is produced by the Hierarchic Divine fusion, as creating a thing is not coming from non-being and the things before taking external and concrete existence have their existence in immutable essences in real and cognitive existence. In fact essences have two relations and two metaphorical interpretations, from one interpretation they are the Truth itself and that is the sense of Existence and Necessity and from the sense of other than Truth which is determination and possibility that it is a rank of the ranks of manifestation of existence in all the ranks. The existence itself is manifested and it also can manifest its soul, because it is attributed with the Divine qualities and form the sense of entifications and ranks of pluralities seeks help from that one Reality who have no entification and from this sense it is in need, help seeking, in capable, weak and incomplete. So relation of bringing into being and creation is from the first metaphorical interpretation; and weakness, poverty and indigence is from the second sense. In the third letter describing the same meaning says. He also has said in the Chapter 196:

فظهر الكون علي صورة كن وكن أمره و أمره كلامه علمه ذاته فظهر العالم علي ذاته 


"The created being appeared in the form "Be" and "Be" is his command is and His command His world and His word is His knowledge, and His knowledge is His essence, so the world appeared on His essence. Then he said: 

فمافي الكون ومشار إليه إلا هو 


So there is nothing in the created being and towards whom indication is made only Him."
Than he said:

فالوجود المحض هو الله ليس غيره والا مكان المحض هو العالم ليس غيره و مرتبة بين الوجود المحض والعدم المحض تا آخر 


"So the Ab.solute Being is Allah none else and Absolute contingent is the world not anything else, His rank is between the Absolute Being and total negation and the total negation is up to
end."
Then said, so the soul of compassionate is giver of the existence as He gave the soul existence of the words.

فنفس الرحمن هو معطي الوجود كما أعطي النفس وجود الحروف 

Shaikh in explaining this meaning with an example of obeying a slave order of the master points out, that when a master orders his slave to stand up and the slave obeys the order of the master and stands up, standing will be by the slave not by the master,and bringing out of standing is from him, although it is by the intention of the master and obeying his order.
After this, the reason of writing the treatise Taswiyya, which he has written before this, again describes and says;

فالمفيد  والقابل في الاتصاف بالوجود وعدم الاتصاف به سواء فسميت هذه الرسالة برسالة التسوية بين الإفادة والقبول 


"So the benefactor and receptive in being described by the existence and not being described by it, are equal. So I named this treatise as "Treatise of proportioning between benefiting and being receptive."
That is i.e., the benefactor of existence and receptive of existence about being described by existence and not being describing by existence, are equal. Then it does not become necessary that
receptive existent before receiving the existence should be existent, and it is not necessary that benefactor of existence should be existed before benefiting.... Therefore, I entitled this treatise of proportioning between benefiting and being receptive." That is, i.e., the benefactor and receptive are being described by existence and not being described by it, are equal, looking towards reality and they are stranger looking towards exterior.
They are the ophanic and epiphantic forms. That is, the Existence-Giver is like the Perceiver, in the meaning, the Apparent with the existence of contingent is like appearing human being with the existence of Zaid. That is the Existence-Giver like the Perceiver are name of the names of the Real, that the Exterior is with existence of contingent, as human
being with the existence of contingent, as human being with the existence of Zaid.Hence that only one rational substance which is receptive of all the forms of the world, does not exist. As all are in "All is He" and Identity of world is essence of his Identity. Therefore, all the things return to Him and every thing goes towards Him (وإليه يرجع الامركله ). Hence the Identity of the Reality (Exalted) is the identity of world, and every entity which is the world returns towards Him. So in the place of possibility nothing more beautiful, better and more delicate is possible. As this world of manifestation is reality of human being who has been created in the form o f the Compassionate. So we worldly people are exterior from of the Reality (Exalted) and the reality of the Truth (Exalted) is delicate spirit and fine soul of this form. And the governance of world is only by the Truth (Exalted) who is identity of and inner of this form. So Identity of the Truth (Exalted) who is governing the world is the inner name of the Truth and form of the world is exterior name of the Truth, the inner is first and exterior is the last.

هو أول وا لا خر والظاهر والباطن 


That is He is the First in the meaning and the Last in the form by changing the orders and conditions and He is inner being by governance. So that meaning and reality which is first is the Truth, and the form which is in the Last is the Truth and nothing else. And which is exterior is only changing of orders and situations of the Truth. And which is inner being in governance that is, the inner reality and spirit of every form and governor of that form is only the Truth.

وهو بكل شئ عليم وعلي كل شئ شهيد 

"He knows every thing and witness on every thing."
That is, the Truth (Exalted) knows every thing as inner of ever thing is truth and the Truth witness on every thing, either present and witness every thing will be True not else. The Truth (Exalted) is witness and witnessed, so The Truth (Exalted) becomes known by witnessing and watching not by thinking and conception as every thinking and conception are guess. In fact the intuitive knowledge is some what mystic science. As knowledge with sweetness of honey and bitterness of colocynth is not with thinking and conception, but it is mystic science. The knowledge about the Truth (Exalted) is also mystic and intuitive and it is also true and correct knowledge."He is the First, the Last, the exterior and Inner being."



REFERENCES


1. Muhibbullah, Maktubat, M.S. 4th Maktub
2. Ibid, 3rd Maktub
3. Muhibbullah, Sharh-e-Taswiya, M.S. Khanqah Library, P2
4. Ibid, P3
5. Ibid, P5
6. Ibid, Maktubat, 6th Maktub
7. Ibid, Last Maktub
8. Unknown, Risala Tawiiidiya, M.vS.
9. Muhibbullah, Taswiyya, M.S. Khanqah Library,
10. Ibid, P 10
11. Ibid, Maktubat, 1st Maktub
12. Ibid, Haft Ahkam, M.S. Khanqah Library, 1
13. Ibid, 2
14. Ibid, Maktubat, Fist Maktub
15. Ibid
16. Ibid, Last Maktub
17. Ibid
18. Ibid, First Maktub
19. Ibid, Last Maktub
20. Ibid, Ibadat-ul-Khawas, M.S., Khanqah Library, 52
21. Ibid, Maktubat, 10th Maktub
22. Ibid, 2nd Maktub
23. Ibid
24. Ibid, 15th Maktub
25. Ibid, 16th Maktub
225
26. Ibid
27. Ibid, 15th Maktub
28. Ibid, 17th Maktub
29. Ibid, Sharh-e-Taswiyya, M.S., Khanqah Library, 11
30. Ibid, P 16
31. Ibid, Maktubat, 1st Maktub
32. Ibid
33. Ibid, 3rd Maktub
34. Ibid, 7th Maktub
35. Ibid, 14th Maktub
36. Ibid, 15th Maktub
37. Ibid, 7th Maktub
38. Ibid, 15th Maktub
39. Ibid, First Maktub
40. Ibid, Sharh-i-Taswiyya, M.S. Khanqah Library, 22 - 25
41. Ibid, P 32-38
42. Ibid, Maktubat, 4th Maktub
43. Ibid, vSharh-i-Taswiyya, M.S., Khanqah Library. 40
44. Ibid, 42- 45
45. Ibid, P 48 - 49
46. Akbarabadi, Tasfiyya, 109
47. Muhibbullah, Maktubat, 15th Maktub
48. Ibid, 3rd Maktub
49. Ibid, Sharh-e-Taswiyya, 52
50. Ibid, 77
51. Akbarabadi, 120
52. Ibid
226
53. Muhibuliah, Sharh-e-Taswiyya, 61
54. Ibid, 63
55. Ibid, 65- 67
56. Ibid, 79
57. Ibid, 89
58. Ibid, Maktubat, 3rd Maktub
59. Ibid, Sharahe-e-Taswiyya, 89-92
60. Ibid, 96-100-227


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