Qutubeallahabad Home Introduction Tasawwuf(Sufism) जीवनी हज़रत शाह मुहिबउल्लाह इलाहाबादी حیٰوۃ شیخ الکبیر حضرت شاہ محب اللہؒ الہ آبادی About Us Allahabad Gallery

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Commentaries of Shaikh Muhibbullah Allahabadi on Ibn-e-Arabi's works

Commentaries of Shaikh  Muhibbullah Allahabadi  on Ibn-e-Arabi's works 

The Sufi thought of Shaikh IbneArabi was the pivotal point of Muslim religious thought in India. His works specially the Fusus-ul-Hikam and the Futuhat-e-Makkiya exerted great influence on Muslim intellectuals and were accepted in the Sufi circle as the guide books for one who set out on a journey of the uncharted ocean of spiritual experience. It is reported that the ideas of the great Shaikh Ibn-e Arabi reached and were introduced in India through Shaikh Fakhruddin Iraqi, a disciple of Shaikh Bahauddin Zakariyya of Multan. Iraqi had attended the lectures of Maulana Sadruddin Qunawi, who was disciple and brilliant advocate of Ibn-e-Arabi's thought. In the beginning many commentaries were written on Ibn-e-Arabi's thought in Arabic but thought did not reach the spiritually immature and create an atmosphere of religious anarchy. In the early centuries the Sufi teachers took care not to associate the common people in the abstruse Sufi thought of Ibn-e-Arabi as it was generally believed that Wahdat- ul-Wujud, If not properly understood and assimilated, could give buth to heretical movements. But in the fifteenth sixteenth centuries this conscious attitude was abandoned and Wujudi ideas of Ibn-e-Arabi became a current coin.'
Masud Baksh, who was executed at the order of Firoz Shah Tughlak, gave expression to Wahdat- ul-Wujud in his Diwan "Nur al-Ain" and a Sufi treatise known as "Mras al-Arifin". According to Shaikh Abdul Haq Muhaddis of Delhi no one before Masud Baksh discussed Sufi secrets as openly he did. It  appears that during the time of Shaikh Abdul Quddus Gangohi the Diwan of Masud Baksh was widely read?
The impact of Ibn-i Arabi's thought is clearly discernible in Indo-Muslim religious thought during the sixteenth century. Shaikh Abdul Quddus Gangohi started open discussions about Wahdat al-Wujud. Commentaries on Ibn-i Arabi's works came to be written in Persian. Shaikh Amanullah Panipati started giving instruction to people in the Fusus-al Hikam and Futuhat-e -Makkiya. But in the seventeenth century the whole atmosphere was vibrating and echoing with the doctrine of Wahdat al-Shuhud propounded by Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi against the doctrine of Wahdat al-Wujud of Ibn al-Arabi. Shaikh Muhibullah made up his mind to revive the mystical doctrine of Ibn-i-Arabi. Shaikh Muhibullah wrote many commentaries on Ibn-i Arabi's works.
In these Arabic and Persian books he tried to elaborate, interpret and elucidate the Sufi thought of great celebrity. Most of the commentaries of Shaikh Muhibbullah are related to various discussion of the Fusus-ul-Hikam. Apart from this, he also tried to provide to theological basis for the thought of Ibn-e-Arabi from the Qur'an. The Sheikh is basically interested in the principal doctrine of Ibn-e-Arabi i.e. Wahdat-al Wujud. Shaikli Muhibbullah after reaching Allahabad, therefore, plunged head long into a programmed of popularizing the correct import and significance of Ibn-i Arabi's works. He had compiled a commentary of Fusus-ul-Hikam in Arabic, but it was only a perfunctory attempt and could hardly be of any use of Indian scholars.
Therefore he compiled a Persian commentary on the work? Fusus-ul-Hikam is one of the most difficult works of Ibn-e-Arabi written in Arabic language, deals with the teachings of eminent prophets. The book is divided into twenty seven chapters; each chapter contains an appropriate aspect of Tasawwuf. It has been commented upon in Arabic by Sadruddin Qunavi,
Maulana Abdur Rahman Jami, Shaikh Abdul Ghazi al-Nablusi and Shaikh Abdur Razzak Kashani. Moreover many Arabic commentaries were produced in India also. For instance Syed Ali Hamdani wrote a commentary on Fusus-ul-Hikam in Arabic. Abdul Muhsin Sharfuddin of Delhi's Ain al-Fusus, Shark al-Fusus, Shark al-Fusus li Ibn-i Arabi, Shaikh Immauddin Arif s Shark al-Fusus, Shaikh Ali Saghar Qannuji's Jawami al-Kalim fi Sharah Fusus-ul-Hikam and Shaikh Nuruddin Ahmadabadi's Tariqat ul-Ummakfi Skarak Fusus-ul-Hikam and Mulla Abdul Ali Firangi's Sharah al-Fusus un-Nabi min Fusus-ul-Hikam etc.'

Shaikh Muhibbullah's Sharah Fusus-ul-Hikam

Sharah Fusus-ul-Hikam is the explanation and summary of Fusus-ul-Hikam of Shaikh Ibn-i Arabi. It was considered to be a standard work. It is as close to the original text of the Shaikh Ibn-i Arabi. Shaikh Muhibbullah does not sometimes stick to one subject in each Fas: he reiterates it in other Fusus. The threads of his arguments run into one another with connecting links. Instead of taking a title for his heading, Shaikh Muhibbullah has taken the name of the Prophet for the same. Shaikh Muhibullah not observed chronological order in his treatment.

The Prophets are not taken in the order of their advent, but  according to characteristics of their 'Hikma', partly based on the mentality of  the people to whom they were sent, and partly on their own sulut, one Hikma leading to another. Sharah Fusus al-Hikam is only a commentary on the lives 
of the Prophets mentioned in the Qur'an; in fact, it is a commentary in a Sufistic interpretation of verses of the Qur'an dealing with the lives and teachings of tiese Prophets. Shaikh Muhibbullah has sometimes given rationalistic basis also to his themes before giving his kashfi (illuminative) expiation for them,which latter more or less intended for people with a grounding in the subject or  who have undergone a courses of suluk (spiritual practice under a Shaikh),


God attributed Himself with beauty (jamal) and glory jalal); for He endowed man with hope and fear. The pair of these attributes is called His hands. These pairs of attributes conjoined to create the perfect man, who is the composite of all realities in existence. God created Adam with His two hands, by bestowing on him the garments of His attributes. Hence he said to Iblis.

قَالَ يَا إِبْلِيسُ مَا مَنَعَكَ أَن تَسْجُدَ لِمَا خَلَقْتُ بِيَدَيَّ ۖ أَسْتَكْبَرْتَ أَمْ كُنتَ مِنَ الْعَالِينَ (75)

What prevented you from bowing before him whom I created with my both hands?" (Surah Sad: 75)

Adam therefore is the khalifa of God, and he is in the likeness of God. He possesses all things that the khalifa should possess from his Lord ! God made man in his own image. This khilafat is attainable only by perfect man, whose externality is according to the forms of the world and whose internality is
according to the reality of God. He is the composition of all external and internal realities (haqaiq). Mark the difference between these two. God is present in the things of the creation, according to their requirements, but not in composite form as in the khalifa. If God is not immanent in created things, the latter would never been existed. Thus the world is dependence on God, who alone is independent (ghani). Every thing is correlated to every thing else, and is not separated from the divine zat.
From the internal and external phases of the zat of Adam, it is clear that he is the Truth as well as the created, Adam is one nafs, from which the humans have come out.

.يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اتَّقُوا رَبَّكُمُ الَّذِي خَلَقَكُم مِّن نَّفْسٍ وَاحِدَةٍ وَخَلَقَ مِنْهَا زَوْجَهَا وَبَثَّ مِنْهُمَا رِجَالًا كَثِيرًا وَنِسَاءً

"O, people feat that Providence, who created you out of one nafs; and out of  that nafss created his consort and out of these, many men and women."(Surah An-Nisa:l)


Gifts that are bestowed on creatures are of two kinds: gifts of zat and gifts of  asma, which are appreciated only by Sufis. The gift of Dhat is a tajalli  (illumination) of God, and this tajalli will be in the form, of which the  illuminated had the capacity. Hence the illuminated sees his own form in the mirror of God, and does not see God. If you gaze into a mirror, the mirror disappears and you see your own form. This is only an illustration of what  takes place and not of the reality. This is the highest stage, to which the  'created' can reach. In enabling you to see your nafs. He becomes your mirror;  and in manifesting His asma, you become His mirror. The mirror of the zat is  nothing less than the Reality. All the gifts of God are obtained from His asma.  Each ism is differentiated from another ism manifestation; while in its  intemality, it is the same as the other. This was the particular knowledge that  was possessed by Prophet Shees. 


Prophet Nuh stressed his preaching on tamih (qualitylessness) and his ummat  was engrossed in tashbih (qualityedness) i.e. in idolatry. The Qur'an has said: 

لَيْسَ كَمِثْلِهِ شَيْءٌ وَهُوَ السَّمِيعُ الْبَصِيرُ

He is not a likeness Of anything. He is the hearer and seer (Surah Ash Shurah 11)
Prophet Nuh restricted himself to tanzih, Prophet Muhammad taught tanzih in tashhbih and tashbih in tanzih. The first part of the above quoted verse inculcates tanzih and the second part, tasbih. Prophet Nuh directed his ummah from individual asma towards the composite asma Allah; for the worshipper would be ignoring the whole, if he restricted himself to particular individual asma. The ummah of Prophet Nuh gave preference to reason over suluk  (shariat); and transcendental wonder is the outcome of suluk, which alone  cleanness the heart of the salik. 


Elevation is of two kinds: - elevation of position and elevation of rank. The  former was bestowed on Prophet Idris, when it was said 

وَٱذْكُرْ فِى ٱلْكِتَٰبِ إِدْرِيسَ إِنَّهُۥ كَانَ صِدِّيقًا نَّبِيًّا وَرَفَعْنَٰهُ مَكَانًا عَلِيًّا

"And we have elevated him (Idris) to a high position". (Surah Maryam: 56) 

The highest point in the cosmos is the one around which the skies revolve. This  is the sphere of the sun, which is the spiritual position of Prophet Idris. Then  there is the elevation of rank; which is for the Muslims (who truly understand the mind of the prophet); for God has said in their case 

 وَأنْتُمُ الْأعْلَوْنَ وَاللَّهُ مَعَكُمْ

"You are high of rank and God is with you". (Surah Muhammad: 35) 
God is free from position, but He is obtained by acts and elevation in rank by  knowledge. When man attains elevation in rank, he gets into partnership with  God; but this partnership is again circumscribed by the verse,

. سَبِّحِ اسْمَ رَبِّكَ الْأَعْلَى

"Declare the holiness of your Lord, who is most High". (Surah Al-'Ala) 
God is high by His zat and not by comparison with anything. Shaikh-al Akbar  says that "God can not be recognized unless He manifests Himself in  contraries; and in spite of the contraries you must recognize His Oneness. He is  the first. He is the last; He is the external. He is the hidden. The reality of all is  same, although the directions or sides are different. Mirrors are many, the face is one. The several faces are the reflection of one face. The place of 'faces' is 
ayan-e-thabita; on account of these, God takes varieties of shapes, and shows up their peculiarities. 


Prophet Ibrahim was called Khalilullah ( friend of God); because he had permeated all the attributes of God or he was called Khalillullah, because God had permeated the appearance of Ibrahim. 
When one thing permeates another, the first becomes hidden in the second and thus its internal (batin) if the Creator is manifest; the created is hidden him this case all the asma of God like Seer and Hearer become the asma of the created. The names of these asma become khalq (creation). If the khalq is manifest, than God is hidden m it. When Ibrahim, the Khalil or friend of God, 
knew the secret of this fact, he adopted the practice of hospitality. Food permeates every part of the body; Prophet Ibrahim had permeated all the asma of God like food in the body. 


Prophet Ibrahim said to his son "O son, I saw in a dream that I was sacrificing  you". Dream is a thought world. The tajalli that dawn from the thought world (alam-e-misal) requires to be interpreted in other forms. A dream requires an interpretation but Prophet Ibrahim did not give any credit to interpretation. 
Prophet Muhammad said: "Whoever sees me in a dream, sees me in actuality, the Satan cannot assume my shape". The body of the Prophet Muhammad is interred at Medina; no body has seen his soul and misali bodies. When one sees him in dreams, he sees him only in the casual body that he had the time of demise. Satan can not assume the shape of that body; neither can he assume the shape of his misali body. God safeguard the sanctity of prophethood. When therefore one receives a command from the prophet Muhammad, he must carry it out literally.

 Fas-e Hikma-e-Ismailiya

The name Allah indicates Oneness of the zat with its innumerable asma (names) which are really aspect of zat. There is no room for multiplicity in the zat, while there is room for the same in asma. The name Allah thus indicates pure zat with the totality of asma or its own aspects. There is a rab for each object that is manifest and Allah is the rab of all the rabs (Rabb-ul-Arbab). 
Prophet Ismail had the cognition of his rab, which was hadi, in fact every one who has attained nafs-e-mutmainna, has secured the approval of his rab; for it is said of this nafs.

 فَادْخُلِي فِي عِبَادِي وَادْخُلِي جَنَّتِي

"Enter into the assembly of my servants and enter into my paradise". (Surah Al-Fajr: 29) 


According to the Shaikh, religion is of two kinds; one; direct from God through the prophets, which is the religion of submission to God (Islam); and it contains shariat to guide the people towards God. Quran said.

إِنَّ ٱلدِّينَ عِندَ ٱللَّهِ ٱلْإِسْلَٰمُ

"The religion of God is Islam" i.e. submission of the created to the creator. (Surah Al  Imran: 19) Religion from God is the shariat of the God. One becomes blessed, if he adopts this shariat and mould and directs his actions accordingly. Religion is from God but its existence is from abd. Thus religion is proved from your actions, just as the asma of God are proved from the actions of God, you yourselves are the asma of God. If you are submissive to the shtiriat, you will attain elevation towards God. But asceticism is from man. 

وَرَهْبَانِيَّةً ٱبْتَدَعُوهَا مَا كَتَبْنَٰهَا عَلَيْهِمْ إِلَّا ٱبْتِغَآءَ رِضْوَٰنِ ٱللَّهِ فَمَا رَعَوْهَا حَقَّ رِعَايَتِهَا

"They innovated asceticism of their own accord" (Surah Hadid: 27) and many of them became fasiq (those outside the law). Religion gives good rewards, which brings happiness. hence it was said, 

رَّضِىَ ٱللَّهُ عَنْهُمْ وَرَضُوا۟ عَنْهُ

"God is pleased with them and they are pleased with Him". (Surah Al- Bayynah: 8) These rewards are tajalliyat (illuminations) in the mirror of existence of God. 


Hazrat Ayesha Siddiqa said that it was with true dreams that revelations began to come to the Prophet Muhammad; and these dreams were as clear as the early morning, and continued for six months, after which the angel came. Hence the Prophet Muhammad said that "people are asleep; and when they die, they awake."
Everything seen in a dream requires interpretation; and the life of a man is a dream within dream. Things in dreams are in one form and they appear in another. Knowledge appeared in the form of the milk; the Prophet Muhammad interpreted accordingly.

إِذْ قَالَ يُوسُفُ لِأَبِيهِ يَٰٓأَبَتِ إِنِّى رَأَيْتُ أَحَدَ عَشَرَ كَوْكَبًا وَٱلشَّمْسَ وَٱلْقَمَرَ رَأَيْتُهُمْ لِى سَٰجِدِينَ

"I saw eleven stars and the sun and moon bowing before me"; (Surah Yusuf: 4)
he saw his eleven brothers and father and mother in these forms. This dream did not emanate from his will or from the will of those concerned in the dream. Prophet Yusuf finally said, when the dream came to pass, 

هَٰذَا تَأْوِيلُ رُءْيَٰىَ مِن قَبْلُ قَدْ جَعَلَهَا رَبِّى حَقًّا

"This is the interpretation of my old dream, which God has made true" i.e. materialized in the sense world it has existed in the thought world. (Surah Yusuf: 100) This is like the interpretation that a man gives to a dream in a dream and when he awakes says he had given such an interpretation to the dream and God had made it veridical in the sense world. But the Prophet Muhammad called this world a dream and the next world a reality. Thus the world has no existence of its own, while it is not merely a fancy of thought. 


Ulum-e-Zauqi (the phases of the knowledge of God obtained from observation of His manifestations) are different in different persons according to their temperaments, although their source is one and the same, like water is one and its taste are many according to soils. This is obtained from knowledge of suluk, and which gives food to the soul. 
The first limitation of the unlimited was Ama. It was like "a cloud above which there was no air, and below which there was no air". God was in it before the creation. The second limitation was the Arsh (the throne), on which He had taken His stand. Then He is said to have descended to the sky and to the earth and He is said to be the reality of us all. The Quranic verse: 

 ۚ لَيْسَ كَمِثْلِهِۦ شَىْءٌ ۖ وَهُوَ ٱلسَّمِيعُ 

"He is not like the likeness of anything" or it may mean "He is not like anything" i.e. He is the reality of all things. (Surah Ash-Shura: 11) If he were not the reality, nothing would have existed. Everything in the world is His face. He is the soul of the world. He who sees God in him is an on/(Gnostic). God will manifest Himself to His devotee in the forms of his beliefs. But you do not confine Him to any particular form; He is above limitations; so became a believer in all forms of beliefs,

وَلِلَّهِ الْمَشْرِقُ وَالْمَغْرِبُ ۚ فَأَيْنَمَا تُوَلُّوا فَثَمَّ وَجْهُ اللَّهِ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ وَاسِعٌ عَلِيمٌ

"Whenever thou turn thy face, there is the face of the Lord; the face refers to the zat of God, which is His reality, and which is everywhere and in everything. (Surah Al-Baqarah: 115) 


اِنَّمَاۤ اَمۡرُهٗۤ اِذَاۤ اَرَادَ شَیْـئًـا اَنۡ يَّقُوۡلَ لَهٗ كُنۡ فَيَكُوۡنُ‏

God has said: "When we resolve (to create) a thing, we say unto it, 'Be' and It becomes. (Surah Ya Sin: 82) Thus the zat is inclination to manifest a thing by means of the word 'Be'. The three aspects of God manifested themselves was composed of the ayn (reality) of the obeying the same to become manifest. 
Thus the three aspects of the 'created' become the three aspects of the creator; the reality of shay (thing) which was established in aadm, the zat of its creator; had not these aptitudes, it could not have come into existence. Thus God created the thing which was adm (nothingness). The reality of the external and internal manifestations is triunes and this was the Hikma of Swalah. 


Prophet Shuaib preached justice and observance of God in all things, great and small. His teaching is based on qalb which is the center of zahir (external world) and batin (internal world) i.e., between asma and their extemalization. 
The qalb of arif recognizes the manifestation of Divine forms and the tanazzulat (devolutions) of God. God manifests Himself in Tajalli, according to the aptitude of the Gnostic. When the tajalli of Ahdiyat dawns on an arif, he becomes fani (annihilated), i.e. become unconscious of self and others, and all things disappear from his sight; zat alone remaining. When duality disappears the consciousness remains that God is. This is the state of baqa. 


In this chapter, the Shaikh discuss the origin of good and evil and the necessity for prophets to come into the world. Existence is God's; the "created" has no existence. The origin of the 'created' is weakness.

اللَّهُ الَّذِي خَلَقَكُمْ مِنْ ضَعْفٍ ثُمَّ جَعَلَ مِنْ بَعْدِ ضَعْفٍ قُوَّةً ثُمَّ جَعَلَ مِنْ بَعْدِ قُوَّةٍ ضَعْفًا وَشَيْبَةً

"God is one who has created you a weak creature". (Surah Rume: 54) 
Weakness and humility are therefore inherent in man. For forty years, man's  power wax strong, and with the advent of grey heirs on his head they wane. 

God sends prophets to nations to show them the distinction between right and wrong and not to compel anybody to adopt the one, and reject the other. The Prophet Muhammad had simply to deliver his message to his uncle Abu Talib, 
and was not be aggrieved at its ineffectiveness. The conduct of a man is according to the nature of ain-e-thabita (forms in God's knowledge). Some ayan consists of good aptitudes and some of evil. God does not command contrary to the requirements of these aptitudes. Another reason of sending prophets is to enable man to reach the perfection.


In this chapter, Shaikh discusses the result of attempting to pierce into the unseen viz., the ayan-e-thabita the knowledge of which is possessed by God  alone and by those few of his saints. Hiis knowledge is called sir-i-qadr (secret of qadr). Prophet Uzair said in surprise when he passed by a village "How could God resurrect these people after death". The secret of qadr consists in having knowledge otayn and their aptitudes. 
The secret of qadr is known only through tajalliyat and wahi and not through cogitation and contemplation; and hence the Prophet Muhammad prayed, "O Lord, increase my knowledge" i.e. my ''tajalliyat.' Tajalliyat are illuminations by means by which our knowledge of the zat (the manifest) increases. 


Iblis denotes distance from God. When Prophet Ayyub failed to realize the realities of things, he was flung away from God, and was said to have been tempted by Iblis; He therefore prayed against this temptation, and began "to refer everything (to God)". 
When one prays, he must pray God and not to the manifestation of any of his asma; for in one aspect the asma are the ghair (other) of God; although in another, they are His qyan (reality). There is no ghair (other) of God, but his own asma (names) become His ghair, when they are viewed without reference to His zat (reality) when appeal is made to His asma alone, such appeal becomes Idolatry, though God grants our prayer only through the manifestations of His asma, of which He is intenality.
Prophet Muhammad is the manifestation of all asma. It is the stage of Wahdat (the partition between Divinity and Humanity). He is Wajhulla (the face of God) or the conglomeration of all His attributes. In appealing through Wajhullah, you are appealing to all the asma. 


This Hikma relates to an Ism-i-jalali (glorious name) of God for Prophet Yahya was always in fear of God. This attribute of God is realized only by Ilm-i zauqi (knowledge derived from taste); like the knowledge of sweetness obtained from honey. The word Yahya is derived from hayat, (life) and means "He shall make alive". This name itself shows that he was to keep alive something, which was the remembrance of his father. Son is the secret of his father, and so Prophet Zakariya said:

يَرِثُنِى وَيَرِثُ مِنْ ءَالِ يَعْقُوبَ ۖ وَٱجْعَلْهُ رَبِّ رَضِيًّا

Make this son my inheritor and the inheritor of Yaqub", so that he called the people of God. (Surah Maryam: 6) 


In this Hikma, the nature of calamities is discussed, and this Hikma is applicable to Prophet Zakariyah who suffered calamities, so much so, that when he was sawn in twain, he never said a word of complaint, although he was one whose prayers were readily granted by God. He considered calamities to be from God; and source of rest and consolation to his heart. Prophet 
Zakariya is, however specially mentioned as blessed; because he considered calamities to have their origin in grace. 


Prophet Ilyas was lifted up to the sky and sent down again with prophet-ship. Thus there are two ranks. In the second, salik comes down from the rank of pure intelligence to causal world and becomes an irrational animal, so that he sees what an irrational animal sees, and what no rational animal and Jinn can see. He gets into two states; one in which he sees the dead person alive in the grave, castigated or rewarded as the case may be, and the other in which he 
himself becomes dumb-founded so that he could not speak, even if he tried to. 
This is Ilm-i zauqi (knowledge such as one gets from relishing); in which Nature becomes the reality of the breath of God and Sufi sees every thing as the reality of God. 


The Hikma of Prophet Luqman, who observed all things in God and God in all things, consists in his observance of God in all things, called Ahsan by the Sufis. The Angel Gibriel visited the Prophet Muhammad one day, in the form of Arabi (Bedouin of the desert), and propounded five questions to him. One of tiiese was what is Ahsan Gibriel said, "Pray to your God as you see Him; if you cannot do this, and pray to Him as He sees you". Such observance (Shuhud) is called Ahsan. Sufi saw everything as the reality (ayn) of God. The Shaikh expressed the idea that when the world is hidden from the sight of salik, God is apparent and displays himself, and when God and sifat are hidden, the world is apparent. 


In this Hikma, the Shaikh discuss the subjects of idolatry, the social and political question of the ranks of men, and God's working in the world. 
Prophet Musa was angry with Prophet Harun because he had not seen the unlimited tajalli (illumination) of God in the limited Golden calf. He had not realized the unlimited in the limited. Gnostic see the immanence of the 
unlimited existence in every limited object. To them the limited is not ghair (other) of God. The worship of idols is made haram (prohibited) by the shariat, because idols are considered as the ghair (other) of God. Even if they are considered as the qyn (reality) of God, it is haram in the 
shariat, because all other innumerable manifestations of God are ignored in view of this one manifestation. Hence Prophets taught the worship of One Absolute God only. 


When Prophet Musa reached the region of light in the valley of Tuwa, the command to him was

 إِنِّي أَنَا رَبُّكَ فَاخْلَعْ نَعْلَيْكَ إِنَّكَ بِالْوَادِ الْمُقَدَّسِ طُوًى

"Remove your sandals, for you are in the sacred valley {Tuwa)" i.e. remove your worldly encumbrances. (Surah Ta Ha: 12) Some say that the sandals of Prophet Musa had straps of leather of a goat that was not slain in the name of God; hence unclean. 
When Pharoah was obdurate. Prophet Musa resorted to his miracle. The rod of Prophet Musa showed itself as a serpent i.e. as the nafs-i-ammara as sinful nature of Pharoah; and then showed itself as nafs-e-mutmaina of Prophet Musa, the higher state of this nafs, when it swallowed up the serpents of the enchanters.

Pharoah had salvation in the next world; for Aasia, wife of Pharoah, said under Divine 
inspiration when she found Prophet Musa in the ark.

وَقَالَتِ امْرَأَةُ فِرْعَوْنَ قُرَّتُ عَيْنٍ لّـِي وَلَكَ

"He the light of your eyes and of mine". (Surah Al-Qasas: 9) When a person brings faith in the unity of God with his or her consciousness intact before death, that person becomes Muslim and his or her sins are forgiven. When Pharoah saw the children of Israel passing through the sea, he brought faith the Lord of Prophet Musa and became a believer and his sins were forgiven. 
Repentance is not, however of any avail in this world in the case of calamities that comes over one on accountt of sins. Muslims are prohibited from calling any one a "man of hell", for we are unaware of his last moments. 


The Shaikh says that Prophet Isa had three aspects; Bodily, Spiritual and Divine. His bodily aspect had its origin from being born of Hazrat Mariyam. In his spiritual aspect, he raised the dead to life and put life into the images of birds of clay. This aspect he, owes to the breath or the thought form of Gibriel, 
who had taken human shape, and moisture of Hazrat Maryam; and in his divine aspect, the light of God had predominated in him. Prophet Isa was a form of Wahdat (the second stage of devolution of God) which in original was the first form of God called Haqiqat-e-Muhammadl The Sufis believe that alam-e-ghayb (the unseen world), and alam-e-shahadat (the seen world), are all, aspects of God. Prophet Isa was thus an aspect of God. 
The Kalima or word is the word applied to Ruh or spirit which came under the command of kun (Be). Prophet Isa was Kalimatulla or Ruhullah as he was the direct manifestation of kun, while in the case of the rest of creation, the manifestation is through the stages of different asma. 


When abd reaches the stage of fana than baqa (permanence in God's attributes), in which his heart becomes illuminated, and God becomes his sight hearing and other faculties, by which he hears, sees etc. In this case, abd becomes one of the names of God. 
The knowledge of this fact was the kingdom (mulk) that was bestowed on Prophet Sulaman. God himself was manifest in the form of Prophet Sulaman, who was then in annihilation, just as He was manifest in the flame of the burning bush before Prophet Musa. The essence of God is immanent in all things in the cosmos, and sifat (attributes) cannot be separated from the Dhat and so all sifat are inherent in every thing. Prophet Sulaman had control of the wind as he was in the stage of fana (annihilation) and thus could command the wind by uttering kun (Be)


The first gift to Prophet Dawood was the bestowal of a name (Dawood) in which each letter composing the word is one of the detached letters (viz., dal, alif, wau) which are never joined to a subsequent letter, when they occur at the beginning of a word. Thus God detached Prophet Dawood from the world. The name of our Prophet Muhammad consists of both a detached letter (dal) and attached letters {mim, hae). Thus God detached him from the world and 
attached him to Himself So also is the case in the name Ahmed; alif and dal are detached letters, and hai and mim are attached letters.
The second gift to Prophet Dawood was that mountains and birds sang the tasbih of God along with Him. The third gift was the appointment of Dawood as the Khalifa of God on earth to administer justice amomgst His creatures. 
The fourth gift to Prophet Dawood was his softening of Iron. Hard hearts are made soft by the threat of punishment. It is difficult to soften a stone, which goes to pieces and does not become soft. God also made iron soft for Prophet Dawood, so that he could make armours out of it. From this, a lesson was taught that everything protects itself from itself. 


This chapter explains the characteristics of nafs. Man is composed of a causal body, nafs (desire body), and soul. The nafs of man is the manifestation of the name of Allah which is conglomerate of all His names, which are significant of His attributes. One perceives God in the same way as he perceives his ego. Just as God surrounds everything, man's nafs surrounds causal and soul worlds. 
Just as Prophet Yunus was hidden in the belly of a great fish, and was relieved out of it by zikr. This zikr of Prophet Yunus relieved him from the belly of the fish. When Sufi prays with all his heart and soul, his khatrat (affections of heart) disappear. When he preserves in this, illuminations of God dawn upon him, first of His asma (names); and than his zaf, and then the Zakir will be annihilated in God. 


In this Hikma Shaikh discuss the importance of companionship of the saints(sohbat-e-sufia) and says that Man after death, appears in that state, in which he constantly and habitually indulged in this world e.g. a greedy man assumes the forms of a rat; an avaricious man, the form of a pig, a violent man that of a tiger. This is referred in the Hadith, 'Man tashabbuhu qauminfa hua min hum, 'whosoever assimilates the characteristics of a tribe becomes one of 
that tribe'.


This is called the Hikma of individuality, as Prophet Muhammad was the most perfect man in the species of mankind. His mission began with nabuwwat (Prophet ship) in the spiritual world, as per Hadith "I was Nabi, while Adam was yet between water and mud", and it ended with nubuwwat in the material world, as he is the exponent of all the asma (names) of Adam. His existence displays true ness of self and existence in the beginning and manifestation at the 
end. Hence he said in the matter of love, "Three things of your world have been made beloved to me and of these three, he mentioned women, and fragrance and said "the coolness of my eyes has been caused in salat". 'Women' has been placed before 'salat' for women in respect of manifestation is a part of man and the understanding of one's self is prior to the understanding of God which is the result of the understanding of self: 
"Whoever understood his self understood his God" says a hadith. From this you may infer either that since you cannot understand yours self, you cannot understand God, or that every particle of creation is an indication of the reality which is the existence of God.
God took out of Adam another image which He called woman. When she appeared in his own form, Adam showed inclination towards one's own self and the women showed inclination towards him, such as one shows towards one's own self and one one's own native land. Women were, therefore, beloved of the prophet Muhammad, just as one made in His own image (i.e. Adam) was beloved to God. Thus the relationship of form was established between God and man, and man and woman. Man became the couple of God, and women became the couple of man. Thus three individualities appeared: God, man, and women. Man showed inclination to God, his original, just as women showed it towards men, her orignal. Therefore, the Prophet Muhammad's love of women is the love of God; and this love is realized by copulation. In this act, lust spreads throughout the body and he becomes fani (annihilated in his self), but 
he thinks he is deriving pleasure from women and has become fani (annihilated) in her. Since this annihilation in other - than God was throughout his body, the bathing of the whole body is farz (compulsory) in the shariat, semen being an abstract of the whole body. Man breathes into woman to see his self (his likeness) reappear; just as God breathed His breath into man to see 
His self re-appear. When God created the prophet Muhammad, the prophet stood before him in passivity; and the world was created out of him, which was fragrance itself Hence the Prophet Muhammad loved fragrance and gave it the place next to women. Since fragrance was the essence of creation, which is God Himself; it became beloved to the Prophet, who found fragrance in everything. 
The third thing that signified individuality is salat. The prophet Muhammad said "the coolness of my eyes is secured in salat, which is the observance of God; it a dialogue or communication between God and man. God has said 

فَاذۡكُرُوۡنِىۡٓ اَذۡكُرۡكُمۡ وَاشۡکُرُوۡا لِىۡ وَلَا تَكۡفُرُوۡنِ 

"You remember Me, I remember you."(Surah Al-Baqarah: 152) There is no ordinance of shariat of the same kind as salat, for in salat attention should not be diverted to anything else, even of a compulsory religious nature; so long as it lasts. Salat is a God's tajalli (illumination). This tajalli (illumination) leads to, mushahida (vision of God). And this vision of the beloved {Allah) brings coolness to the eyes. 

  • 1. Nizami, K.A. Tarikhi Maqalat. Nadwatul Musannifin, Lucknowl966, p. 19. 
  • 2. Rizvi, S.A.A. History of Sufism in India (Vol. II) Delhi Munshiram 
  • Manoharlal Publishers, 1983, pp. 241-243. 
  • 3. Nizami, K.A. Tarikhi Maqalat. Nadwatul Musannifin, Lucknow, 
  • 1966, pp. 17-29. 
  • 4. Ibid. 
  • 5. Allahabadi, Muhibbullah. Sharah al-Fusus al-Hikam (Persian), MS: 
  • Maulana Azad Library, Abdul Hayy Collection, Aligarh Muslim 
  • University Aligarh. Cf. Shaikh MuhibbuUah Allahabadi. Sharah Fusus 
  • al-Hikam; translated into Urdu by Shah Gulam Mustafa Hervindi and 
  • Shah Muhammad Baqar Allahabadi. Idara-e-Anesi, Allahabad, 1961. 

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