shah muhibbullah allahabadi Home Introduction Tasawwuf(Sufism) जीवनी हज़रत शाह मुहिबउल्लाह इलाहाबादी حیٰوۃ شیخ الکبیر حضرت شاہ محب اللہؒ الہ آبادی About Us Allahabad Gallery

Search Your Topic

Introductory article about Shah Muhibbullah Allahabadi

हज़रत शाह मुहिबउल्लाह इलाहाबादी
Introductory article about Shah Muhibbullah Allahabadi
Shaikh Muhibbullah Allahabadi was a sufi of high repute and an erudite writer. He played a prominent role in the development of speculative mysticism and theosophical religious thought during 17th century A.D. but unfortunately historians and biographers did not pay due heed to this great personality. A humble attempt is made in this booklet to present a comprehensive account of his life and achievements.
Shaikh Muhibbullah a great personality of the Sufi order, Chishtiyah Sabriyah was born in 1587 A.D. in Sadrapur town near Khairabad in Sitapur District. Sadrapur has produced besides Shaikh Muhibbullah many other great scholars like Maulana Jafar and Allamah Muhammad Asif. Shaikh’s ancesstory is traced back to Shaikh Fariduddin Ganj Shakar which ultimately goes to Amirul Mominin, Hazrat Umar Ibn Khattab both from paternal and maternal sides. It is said that from Shaikh Fariduddin upto him none was inclined towards worldly gains but was solely devoted to acquire traditional as well as spiritual knowledge. His father’s name was Shaikh Mubariz who was a renowned Sufi and scholar of his age. His mother also belonged to an educated, accomplished and devout family. She was the daughter of Qazi Ismail of Hargam . Qazi Abdul Waiz was his maternal cousin. According to his own description Shaikh studied his primary books with the guidance of his father and a sufi scholar who not only instructed him traditional sciences but also taught him some basic mystical techniques. Shaikh was a precocious student who successfully completed basic course of religious and literary education. Shaikh had great inclination towards traditional education from his early life. His interest in seeking knowledge was so great that when he was in his twenties heavy family and other responsibilities which fell to him after his father’s death did not hinder his progress in further studies and meditation. He moved to Lahore, quite far away from his native place. This happened after 1605 A.D. He became disciple of great scholars of that time in Lahore. He was reckoned among the most prominent disciples of Mulla Abdul Salam Lahori . In Lahore, he received knowledge in all of its aspects, by Abdul Salam Lahori, a mine of rational and traditional learning and a disciple of Amir Fathullah Shirazi .
During the period he received education in Lahore Sadullah Khan and Mulla Mir Khurasani were his colleagues. They entered into an agreement that whoever among them would reach a high position, 
he would provide the others a chance for progress. After completing his education Shaikh returned to his home town and after a search for livlihood here and there he started teaching in his village. He regularly delivered lectures on the subjects of Islam and earned a great reputation but was not satisfied there. His mind and spirit wanted something more so he visited renowned centres of learning and religion to meet scholars and saints.
It is said while he was walking down the streets in Delhi Nawab Sadullah Khan, his old friend and Prime Minister of  Shahjahan happened to pass by in his palanquin (Palki) their eyes met. 
Shaikh immediately averted his gaze and entered a nearby shop. Nawab Sadullah Khan told his men to bring that man to his house with respect. The Nawab welcomed him royally. Sadullah Khan told Shahjahan about his friend’s amazing intellect and talent and said 
infact he deserves to be Prime Minister, I am only fit to be his assistant. 
Shahjahan was very much surprised to hear such an admission from a Prime Minister and was impatient to meet that man. 
The emperor asked many questions to which he had never find satisfactory answers. Immediately Shaikh was appointed minister. 
According to Court's customs he was brought at the tomb of Khwaja Bakhtiyar Kaki with a guard of honour. When Shaikh reached near Qutub uddeen tomb got down and asked the guards to wait as he will go to the tomb on foot and alone. The guards waited a day and night then they became restless. The commander of the troop went to the tomb and enquired, the caretaker told him that yesterday there had been a richly dressed gentleman who put off his rich clothes inside and borrowed a lungi and a shirt and went back. The soldiers searched him everywhere but returned empty hands. It seems while he was at his prayers inside, the mystically inclined minister heard a voice which told him that he was not brought into this world to reform the matters of the manifest, 
rather to correct the latent affairs, on one hand Shaikh was guided to go to Gangoh and the other Shaikh Abu Said Gangohi too got the guidance from Bakhtiyar Kaki that Shaikh Muhibbullah is handed over to him. When Shaikh Muhibbullah came to Shaikh Abu Said the latter was teaching “Lamaat” of Iraqi. Afterfinishing his teaching Shaikh Abu Said turned towards him and said apologetically, “you are an alim (learned man). Shaikh replied you are an “Arif” (Gnostic). 
Anyway Shaikh Muhibbullah became the disciple of Shaikh Abu Said a notable saint of Chishti Sabri order who like his eminent grand father Shaikh Abdul Quddus Gangohi was a great panthiest. Shaikh Muhibbullah developed a firm faith in the validity of the doctrine of 
Unity of Being (Wahdat-ul-Wujud) under his guidance. Shah Abu Said was also deeply impressed by his scholarship and spiritual vision. 
Shah Abu Said taught him all the rules and regulations of Chishtiyah Sabriyah Silsilah. Shaikh Muhibbullah prayed and diligently practiced the mystic exercises and performed the mystical path in such a short time that other fellows became envious to him. Since Shaikh's talent about latent affairs and capabilities was interrelated with Wilayat-e-Moosavi his spiritual guide (Pir) nurturing complative thoughts about Allah directed him to sit in his cell (Hujrah) for forty days but only a few days had passed when his Pir seeing his tremendous spiritual powers went to the door of the Hujrah saying that “O”Muhibbullah! come I have taken you to God and bestowed upon you the spiritual sovereignty (Wilayat) of the East.” Other disciples being depressed, respectfully complained that they had been endeavouring for a pretty long time and never got the sweet water of Union, and he never uttered such words; but to that novice, who had not tasted the flavour (hardship) of meditation he showed favour with such a blessing. Shaikh Abu Said replied that Muhibbullah was such a man that had brought candle in one head and fire in the other; as soon as it was whiffed it became lighted. That was the grace of God which he bestowed upon whomever He liked. How could he delay when God has hastened . Shaikh Muhibbullah himself narrates this incident. The respected spiritual guide, having bestowed the vicegerency upon the faqir, granted leave, by his grace and kindness, to depart while two or three days of Chillah were left. As it displeased some of his disciples because man is bound to be envious, he said that what ever was unveild to him with in a few days, was not disclosed to you by twenty or more years. What can be done? This favour is the favour of God . Shaikh Abu Said sharpened Muhibbullah’s interest in asceticism and Wahdatul Wujud. However after completing his mystical course and getting vicegerency from Shaikh Abu Said he returned to his home land. He stayed there for sometime and engaged himself in writing some works but soon he found that place unsuitable for him, so he left Sadrapur and came to Ruduali and visited tomb of Shaikh Ahmad Abdul Haq Rudaulavi. There he was greatly profitted and blessed by special offerings and revelations.
Apart from his scholarship Shaikh was a man of great personal charm.
Abdul Rahman the author of Miratul Asrar writes that when Shaikh Muhibbullah reached the mausoleum of Shaikh Abdul Haq, I was also there. Shaikh stayed with me and we held discussions with much warmth. I was deeply impressed by Shaikh’s warm personality and rare gift of eloquence and exposition as a preceptor. After getting divine guidance from Shaikh Abdul Haq we left his tomb together and I took him to my house where he stayed for a few days and then again he started his journey. After visiting some other Chishti Centres he proceeded to Allahabad. He visited the tomb of Shaikh Husamuddin Manikpuri at Manikpur. Finally he came to Allahabad in 1628 A.D. and stayed at the place where his grave is situated. Seeing the crowd of the followers and disciples Qazi Ghasi gave in gift his big house at Bahadurganj to the Shaikh which became his permanent abode and centre of his preaching. Shaikh kept getting divine blessings during his stay in Allahabad for over twenty years.
It is a well known fact that seventeenth century occupies a unique place in the history of Indian mystical thought. It saw the conflict of two metaphysical concepts. Unity of Being (Wahdatul Wujud) and Unity of Manifestation (Wahdatul Shuhud) in the realm of Muslim theosophy and this conflict expressed itself in the formation of many religious groups, zawiyas and mystic orders . At that time the whole atmosphere was vibrating and echoing with the doctrine of Unity of Manifestation (Wahdatul Shuhud) propounded by Imam Rabbani, Mujaddid-e-Alf Thani against the doctrine of Unity of Being (Wahdatul Wujud) of Ibn-e-Arabi. Alf Thani bitterly criticised Pantheism (Wahdatul Wujud) and presented the doctrine of Unity of Manifestation (Wahdatul Shuhud). According to him Unity of Being is subjective while Unity of Manifestation is objective. Last twenty years of his life he spent in refuting the pantheistie doctrine and tried to prove that this doctrine is anti Islamic. Mujaddid's strong criticism gave a severe jolt to Unity of Being.
As earlier stated under the guidence of Shaikh Abu Said Shaikh Muhibbullah developed a firm faith in the validity of Wahdatul Wujud as the basis of all higher spiritual experience. He then turned to the two works of Ibn-e-Arabi “Fususul Hikam” and “Futuhat-e Makkiyah” and found himself in complete agreement with the views of the great mystic. Years of critical and patient study of these mystic classics gave him a rare insight into the thought of Ibnul Arabi. In these circumstances Shaikh Muhibbullah stood with a mission to preach and popularise the mystical philosophy of Ibn-e-Arabi and that is the theme of his various writings in Arabic and Persian. It can be safely said that in order to understand and appreciate his works it is necessary to have some idea of Ibn Arabi’s philosophy. 
Shaikh’s writings and preachings present a comprehensive account of Wahdatul Wujud and mystical doctrine of Ibn-e-Arabi who made a remarkable impact on the theosophico religious thought in Islam and marked a turning point in the history of speculative sufism. Shaikh’s 
sufism was deeply rooted in the principles of Wahdatul Wujud and he considered it the very essence of a mystical life according to him  Wahdatul Shuhud was not reliable mystical stage, it was only a sinequa non of Wahdatul Wujud.
Shaikh explained the doctrine of Wahdatul Wujud in the light of Quran and Hadith. He proved that this doctrine was in no way anti Islamic. He has not only explained Wahdatul Wujud but has also explained their mystical thoughts of Ibn-e-Arabi and tried his best to establish the authenticity of Ibn-e-Arabi’s doctrines.His teachings and thoughts show that he is firm in faith and practice. He is very much conscious of his moral responsibility and observance of religious laws. He thinks that sufism teaches us how to purify self, improve one’s moral and build up one’s inner and outer Life in order to attain perpetual bliss. Shaikh was a believer in the principle of responsibility and moral obligation. He believed in discrimination between right and wrong, good and evil without which no social order could be maintained. Shaikh realised that Tasawwuf is a phenomenon of intense religious consciouness. He critised thosesufis who believe that trance and ecstasy are higher than cognition. He says that trance and ecstasy are never higher than knowledge and cognition . Therefore real sufis always keep themselves within the boundaries of Shariah and never go beyond that, they always act according to Quran and Sunnah. So he says that “The truth is that for a gnostic everything is good if the Quran and Sunnah remains in his hand.” Further he says that a man should bow down before God with all humiliation and servitude. A man can be nearer to God with servitude only as it is the highest stage and source of all perfection . He says it is necessary that it should be said to you that servitude is the highest stage and there is no stage beyond that. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) got absolute leadership with servitude only. As earlier told inspite of firm faith in Wahdatul Wujud he never minimised the need of adhering to the Shariah by which the social order is safeguarded. He refers respectfully to the Sunnah and mentions the Prophet always with great respect and devotion. He laid much stress on adherance to Shariah . He refers that continuous Zikr of Kalimah (La illah illa Allah) awakens reality of Tauhid (Wahdatul Wujud) in the heart of Sufi so that apparant contradiction between the Shariah, reason and tauhid disappears. The performance of Zikr reaches a stage in which reality is united with the heart and he conceives nothing but God. Shaikh obtained a supernatural perception of sufism and his whole being was flooded with mystical intuition so he made up his mind to revive the mystical doctrines of Ibul Arabi. As earlier stated doctrines of  Ibnul Arabi had got popularity in the Sufi circles of India long before Shaikh Muhibbullah. His works were widely read. These work had been introduced in India by Bahauddin Zakariya Multani’s disciple, Iraqi, who had been in the company of Ibnul Arabi’s distinguished Khalifah, Shaikh Sadruddin Qunavi .
Ibnul Arabi alias Shaikh Akbar was the master and an expert of Wahdatul Wujud as well as of Shariah (Islamic laws) and the imperical realities. Like wise Shaikh Muhibbullah was the master and 
an expert of the knowledge regarding what is manifest and what is hidden as well as of the Quranic verses and the Ahadith and a knower of secrets of Shariah and the manifest realities. It was because of Shaikh Akbar that Shaikh Muhibbullah could know the Unity of Shariah and Tariqah. As Shaikh Akbar had to access to all knowledge because of the blessings of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). Shaikh Muhibullah had it too. Like Shaikh Akbar, Shaikh Muhibbullah too was inspired by the Quran and Sunnah of Prophet Muhammad. The subjects chosen by Shaikh Akbar for his writings were also, incidently the subjects of Shaikh, Muhibbullah. His coherant and systematic exposition of the intricate ideas of Wahdatul Wujud won for him the appellation of Ibnul Arabi Thani (the second Ibnul Arabi) and Shaikhul Kabeer. He also wrote that as he went through the books authored by Shaikh Akbar like “Fususul Hikam” and “Futahat-e-Makkiyah” He found that the meanings of the books authored by him on the same subjects and those by Shaikh Akbar had similarities. The argumentative proofs offered by Shaikh Akbar had also been offered by Shaikh Kabeer (Shaikh Muhibbullah) alongwith some newones extracted from Quran and the Ahadis. These are available in voluminous works. Apart from these characteristics, there are other as well which cannot be explained here from lack of space. Owing to these literary characteristics Shaikh Muhibbullah was called Shaikh Kabeer while Ibnul Arabi Shaikh Akbar. Rahman Ali writes “His researches and explorations in the science of mysticism have reached the point of original discernment and it is befitting to call Shaikh Muhiyuddin Ibnul Arabi “Shaikh Akbar and him Shaikh Kabeer . On the basis of “Fususul Hikam” he wrote several Persian treatises on various aspects of Wahdatul Wujud meant to be read only by the Sufi elite. Shaikh Kabeer’s book Anfasul Khawas has the peculiarities of Shaikh Akbar’s Fususul Hikam while former’s Ibadatul Khawas” has been styled as Futuhat-e-Makkiyah. In Ibadatul Khawas Shaikh Kabir has adopted modern means to explain the manifest and hidden injuctions, secrets and the realities of the pillars of Islam.
Author of Iqtibasul Anwar has written that Shaikh Muhibbullah was a great pious personality who knew the secrets of faith as well as subtleties of Tariqah (Sufi methods) and the laws of Shariah. Those who protest against him are themselves unacquainted with the realities of knowledge because when they fail to understand his subtle thoughts, they feel constrained to protest and are unable to understand their own illiteracy and wrong acts. Wahdatul Wujud was Shah Sahib’s idealogical point. He has made this only the topic of discussion in all his writings and has profitably argued about it in not only practical but literary field also. This only was the subject in his commentary on the Quran.
As mentioned earlier, in the literary history of India seventeenth century has got special importance for various reasons. In this century, India witnessed clash between Wahdatul Wujud and 
Wahdatul Shuhud.
The proponents of these two point of views got divided into two groups. With time, this ideological water shed got very passionate so much so that even a non Indian tourist, Bernier failed to escape being affected by its passion and importance . The supporters of these two schools of thought were drawn from different strata of society. Shah Muhibbullah of Allahabad, Dara Shikoh, Miyan Mir, Mulla Shah and Baba Lal belonged to the pantheistic school of thought; Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi, Khwaja Muhammad Masum and Ghulam  Yahya belonged to the other. To understand the religious history of the seventeenth century specially to analyse the ideological basis of the two differing view points (Wahdatul Wujud and Wahdatul Shuhud) the proponents of which were Dara Shikoh and Aurangzeb, Shah Sahib's collection of letters hold much importance . Dara Shikoh was among the staunch supporters of Shaikh Muhibbullah. Shaikh’s speeches regarding reality and acquaintence with Allah were so touching that most of the opponents of Wahdatul Wujud got so convinced with him that they swore allegiance to him. Shaikh’s position among the mashaikh, sufis and the ulama of India is widely acknowledged. He has written the expository details of Shaikh Akbar’s thoughts and philosophy in a novel fashion. Owning to his acknowledging Shaikh Akbar’s position and thoughts, he was affected with him in an extra ordinary way. Exposition of “Fususul Hikam” is its proof. Shaikh Muhibbullah says that Shaikh Arabi was placed on so high pedestal of “Shuhud” and “Kushuf” that all the injuntions of Fususul Hikam were known to him. Whatever Fususul Hikam has as its contents is directly inspired by the Master of the two worlds i.e. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) and by virtue of this the said work cannot and does not run counter to the Shariah . Sufis who opposed Ibn-e-Arabi Shaikh Muhibbullah categorised them as Sufi-e-Jahil (ignorant sufis) Amma Ahl-e-Tariq (common place followers of the mystic path) over emphasising the belief in divine transendence and being guilty of accepting the beliefs of scholars of Kalam in matter related to the highest form of experiential spiritual truth . About his own books Shaikh says that whatever he wrote about Tasawwuf (Sufism) were not the results of the study of books, rather they (the works) were the out come of the Kalima la illah illa Allah (There is no God except Allah) taught to me the very first day of learning by my Shaikh (Pir). The Shaikh has written in the preface of “Kitabul Anfas” that he extracted from Ahadith of the Prophet Muhammad to prove the singularity of the existence of Allah which were revealed on him. He wrote that during his hey days, he had great taste for the knowledge of the manifest. He further wrote that one of his teachers who was a great scholar and knower of Allah, taught me the technique of Pas-e-Anfas which resulted in his learning the realities and acquaintence with the singleness of Allah. In his book Anfasul Khawas, he repeatedly writes that there was no moment in his life which was spent with no computation sometimes with Quran and the Ahadith and sometimes with satanice influence. He wrote that one night he saw Prophet Muhammad in his dream. He addressed him and said that whatever was bestowed upon him was true.
He added that when he woke up from sleep, all the satanic influences had disappeared like a true sufi, Muhibbullah never believed in partisanship and racial discrimination. Dara Shikoh was a passionate follower of the Shaikh. He gave Dara Shikoh the good advice that a ruler should not have practical discrimination among the creations of Allah because all including a momin and a Kafir have been sent to this world by Him. This was a wise counsel which had no relation with religious faith. But Dara Shikoh began to present Tauhid-e-Wujudi (Singularity of God) in a different colour. The author of “Maathirul Umara” has also written that Shaikh Muhibbullah was an expert of the manifest and the hidden knowledges but the Ulama had been accustomed of looking at the problems of Wujud with suspicion. This was the reason why they protested against some lines in Shaikh’s book Taswiyah. In February 1664 A.D. Shaikh Abdul Rashid was invited to Allahabad to endorse a Fatwa issued by the Ulama effectively stating that Shaikh Muhibbullah and his disciple Muhammadi Fayyaz were both heretics and infedels. Shaikh Abdul Rashid refused to sign it arguing that if  Muhibbullah and Muhammadi Fayyaz could not be called muslims 16 then who could . After Shaikh’s death Aurangzeb’s attention was too drawn to the lines which ran counter to the Shariah and faith of Islam. At that time two of the disciples of the Shaikh were in power in Delhi. 
One of them was Shaikh Muhammadi Fayyaz Aurangzeb sent a message to him stating there in that if he claims to be a follower of Shaikh Muhibbullah, he must make efforts to make the preface of the book conform to the Shariah or giveup his being a follower of the Shaikh and should throw the book into the fire. Shaikh Fayyaz replied that he did not have the need to give up his being a follower of Shaikh and that he had no access to the place from where Shaikh Muhibbullah argued. As and when I reach the place and position I will write an exposition of the Shaikh’s work as per your demand and will send it to you, he said. And as far as your decision to burn the book is concerned I think your royal kitchen has more fire than that in this poor  man’s home, he added. Aurangzeb got silent hearing such a reply . As has been afore mentioned Shaikh Muhibbullah was a great votary of 
Wahdatul Wujud. He wrote expositions of Shaikh Arabi’s “Fususul Hikam” in both Persian and Arabic languages. In them, he has written that Shaikh Ibn-e-Arabi had always abided by the Shariah-e-Muhammadi because Shaikh Ibn-e-Arabi used to say that may Allah count him among the people who were fettered by the Shariah-e-Muhammadi and who were under no circumstances got unfettered. 
After writing this statement, Shaikh says that Ibn-e-Arabi’s statement shows that he never wrote anything that ran counter to the Shariah. In “Fususul Hikam” also he did not write anything against the Shariah. 
According to Shaikh a proper study and correct understanding of Ibnul Arabi’s works make a man firm in the observance of the religious law. At the very outset of Manazir, he quotes the saying of a famous saint of Naqshbandi Circle. “Khwaja Muhammad Parsa used to say that Fusus is soul and Futuhat is heart. He also used to say that he who has a good knowledge of Fusus becomes more firm in his claim of following the Prophet.” Ibnul Arabi neither discards nor disregards the external laws of Islam, rather he emphasises its importance. Shaikh Muhibbullah in his treatises frequently quotes from Futuhat-e-Makkiyah and Fususul Hikam those passages wherein Ibnul Arabi has said that the real Sufis always keep themselves with in the boundaries of Shariah and never go beyond that; they always act in accordance with the Quran and Sunnah . If one is not aware of it and is deprived of understanding it, it means that he or she is unfortunate enought not to get any light from Shaikh. Shaikh was a believer in the principle of responsibility and moral obligation contrary to other pantheistic mystics, who had no use what ever for the play of free will in human affairs. He believed in discrimination between right and wrong, good and evil without which no social order could subsist. Like other muslim mystics Shaikh well realised that Taswwuf is a phenomenen of intense religious consciousness. It was an attempt to interpret one’s feeling of Union with the divine into the logic that gave it the form of pantheism. Like Ibnul Arabi, Shaikh Muhibbullah made so many compromises with positive religion. He did not completely rule out the duality between God and man as postulated in the Shariah which cannot be annihilated as Ibnul Arabi said. “God remains God howsoever He might descend, 
the man remains man how so ever he might ascend.”Inspite of firm faith in Wahdatul Wujud Shaikh does not at any place minimised the need of adhering to the Shariah by which the social order was safe guarded. He refers respectfully to the Sunnah, 
and mentions the Prophet always with great respect and devotion . 
Shaikh Muhibbullah himself had great respect for the Shariah. He was not only known as a great Sufi rather an alim of great repute. The author of Tazkirah-e-Ulama-e-Hind writes “Shaikh was an
intellectual of high order and was among the great and famous Ulama and sufis having expertise over the knowledges manifest and hidden and was chief of the people of great qualities of his time and age. There were two types of people in Shaikh Muhibbullah’s time. One craved for the knowledge of what is manifest while other desired for what is hidden. Shaikh taught the Quran and Ahadith to the first category while exhorted the second to go deeper in his search for the unseen. 
Apart from this Shaikh would spend his time in holding discussions, meetings and discourses with the Ulama of his time besides worship of Allah. Majority of the Ulama in Allahabad who were opposing pantheism got benefitted in the Company of Shaikh and traced the 
right path. Allamah Mahmood Jaunpuri was one of them.
Allamah Mahmood Jaunpuri author of Shams Bazighah, Maulana Abdul Rashid, author of Kitab-e-Rashidiyah, Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi alias Mujaddid Alf Thani, Shaikh Abdul Haq Muhaddis Dehlavi, Shaikh Muhammad Sadiq, Mahmood Ilahi Gangohi, Shaikh Kabir alias Balapir, Shaikh Jalal Bukhari, Mir Noman Akbarabadi, Mir Abul Ola Akbarabadi, Luqman Akbarabadi etc. were Shaikh’s 
contempories. There are accounts of Shaikh’s discussions and discourses with Maulana Abdul Rashid and Mulla Mahmood Jaunpuri on Wahdatul Wujud. Such accounts are found in Shaikh’s 
letters and other books. Shaikh played a significant role in the development of mystical doctrines by interpreting Ibnul Arabi’s mystical philosophy through his numerous Arabic and Persian works. 
Shaikh died on 9th Rajab 1058 A.H./30th July 1648 A.D. and burried in Kydganj where he stayed first time after arrival in Allahabad.Shaikh’s greatness can also be judged by the qualities of his sons and disciples who were the torch bearers of his thoughts and doctrines and held high positions.
Shaikh had one son named Tajuddin who was brought up with all care and was taught esoteric as well as exoteric subjects. Shaikh Tajuddin was accomplished saint and scholar who carried on Shaikh’s tradition in and around Allahabad. Guidence which ShaikhMuhibbullah started continues till date. His descendent present Sajjadah Nashin Shah Muhammad Saifullah Farooqui alias Sad Miyan is keenly interested in publishing all the works of Shaikh Muhibbullah Allahabadi.

The number of the followers of Shaikh was very large all of them were great and perfect personalities. Prominent among them are:


  • Qazi Ghasi,
  • Shaikh Muhammadi Fayyaz,
  • Syed Kabir Qannauji, 
  • Shaikh Abdul Rashid,
  • Maulana Yusuf, and Shaikh Ahmad etc.

The first follower and successor of Shaikh is Maulana Sadruddin, Qazi of Allahabad. He is commonly known as Qazi Ghasi. 
His father Qazi Sanaullah, was judge of Allahabad and was very rich. 
Qazi Ghasi was a great seeker of knowledge. When he was just fourteen years old he was an ardent admirer of marifat-e-Ilahi (acquaintence with Allah) and realities. One day he discussed some problem with his teacher at the end of which he remained dissatisfied. 
His restlessness continued till he saw a respected figure in his dream who was saying to him that the said problem would not be solved by the Ustad (Teacher). He said a person with such features lived at the bank of Yamuna only he would solve the said problem. In the morning Qazi Ghasi talked with his Ustad about the dream. Ustad asked him to go to Jaunpur as it was the centre of Ulama, but he failed to go to Jaunpur because of some reasons. On his return, he saw a man resembling the feature as told to him by the respected figure in his dream. As Qazi Ghasi neared him he found him exactly the same. 
Shaikh Muhibbullah told him about the problem in exceeding good manner. Qazi Sahib was very much impressed and became his follower and disciple and attained the position of Mushahidah with his Riyazat and spiritual exercise. He was one of the chief Khalifas of Shaikh Muhibbullah and was considered one of his great disciples who carried on his traditions in Allahabad and succeeded to Shaikh’s spiritual post. Qazi Ghasi was the spiritual preceptor of the famous theologian Qutubuddin Sihalavi, the forefather of savants of Frangi Mahal, Lucknow. Qazi Ghasi died during the regin of Aurangzeb.

Syed Muhammad Kabir Qannauji was the second successor of the Shaikh. He was one of the descendants of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). He was known by his alias Rasuldar. An inhabitant of 
Qannauj he was a great Alim and a good mathematician too. He was a great worshipper of God (Allah) and most of his time was spent in God’s worship. He had perfect knowledge of Taswwuf. He was a prominent feagure among the Ulama of his time and was in the service 
of Shahjahan and Aurangzeb. He was teacher of Aurangzeb and Aurangzeb used to discuss with him on jurisprudence and Hadith thrice a week. When Aurangzeb incarserated Shahjahan, he appointed Mir Sahib Shahjahan’s companion in jail. He used to have mutual discussions with Shahjahan about Hadith, their expositions and Tasawwuf. Shahjahan got very much interest in his company. One day Shahjahan said to him in a happy mood that although he had nothing then yet whatever he would ask for, he would give it to him. Syed Sahib made him to say that thrice and then he asked him to pardon Aurangzeb. Taking oath to Allah. Shahjahan gave his forgiving Aurangzeb in writing.Aurangzeb was very pleased by it. When Aurangzeb killed Sarmad, he requested Mir Sahib to help him because he feared reprisals. Answering his entreaty, Mir Sahib said that there was a labourer in a certain locality of Delhi, only he can help you. 
Aurangzeb reached there and after much imploring told him his difficulties and said that Syed Sahib had sent him. Taking a dig at Syed Sahib, he said that Syed Sahib could not stomach even this profession of mine and sent to you (Aurangzeb) to me. Anyway, Allah is the Master of all. He told Aurangzeb that if he would chose a place other than Delhi to live, the rest of his life would be kept being spent in royalty. So, Aurangzeb really spent the rest of his life in Deccan.
Aurangzeb was much pleased by these two incidents and asked Syed Sahib to demand some thing, he would fulfill it. Syed Sahib said that if a king insisted so much then he asks the release of 
feudals (jagirs) of the sons of his Shaikh (Muhibbullah). So the feudals which were given during the regin of Shahjahan and in the life time of Dara Shikoh for the off springs of Shaikh was released by 
Aurangzeb.Maulana Muhammadi Fayyaz was also a great scholar of the knowledges of what is manifest and what is hidden and a pious soul. 
During the days he was seeking knowledge he came to Allahabad. 
Since he was not bestowed upon in the beginning with fast intellect, 
his friends used to poke fun at him. Due to this his teacher discontinued teaching him. After this he went to Shaikh Muhibbullah weeping. Shaikh said that he would teach him. Shaikh taught him for a few hours but the consequences were the same. He could not learn anything. At night, Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) put his spit in his mouth that did wonders to him. He received all the knolwedges. Muhammadi Fayyaz became a saint of very high repute. He was in the company of Shaikh for fourteen years. Shaikh had great regard for him. After receiving Kirqa-e-Khilafat from Shaikh Muhibullah he went to Agra and lived there permanently and devoted all his life to prayer and practice of mysticism. He was an authority on the subjects of Fiqh, Tafsir, Usul and Kalam. He was author of many books and treatises. He wrote a commentary on Taswiyah Shaikh’s most 
controversial treatise.

Shah Muhammadi Fayyaz died on 28th January 1696 A.D. having spent 19 days in fever. He died in Aurangabad while he was house arrest for not ending his “bait” (swearing allegiance on hand) 
on Shaikh Muhibbullah. Practicing over his will, his faithful followers kept his dead body ina casket and after staying at places to places reached Agra in three and half months. He was burried on 7th 
20 of May 1696 in the very cell (Hujrah) inhibited by him once . His Silsilah (Sufistic order) is called Muhammadi Muhibbullahi and is spread over Arabia, Iran, Japan and China.

Syed Dilruba Shah was an erudite scholar and a perfect “darvesh” (one who has acquaintence with God). He was among the prominent disciples of Shaikh. He was a great knower of the secrets of Shariah and Tariqah and an honest follower of his Murshid (spiritual 
guide). After the death of Shaikh, he served his children till his life in the very seminary in which he lived all his life. Along with it, he kept his worship of Allah at the same place. He is burried in the vicinity of Shaikh’s grave.
Qazi Yusuf (d. 1084 A.H./1673 A.D.) another disciple of Shaikh was a great theologian and jurist.After the death of his father he became the Qazi of Bilgram in the reign of Shahjahan. He wrote two discourses in Arabic and Persian in reply to the questions sent by Dara Shikoh to Shaikh Muhibbullah. The Persian discourse entitled “Hidayatus Sultaniyah” has been edited by Maulana Fazlur Rehman Baqi, published by Iran Society, Calcutta.Qazi Abdul Rashid of Delhi received traditional education as well as guidance from Shaikh. He was Qazi of Sambhal.

Mulla Muhsin Fani (1081 A.H./1670 A.D.) the author of Dabistan-e-Mazahib was famous for his great learning and
accomplishment. Fani was the Sadr or chief justice of Allahabad during Shahjahan’s reign. He became a disciple of Shaikh. Later on he became spiritual guide and teacher. He was also a poet of repute and has left a collection of poems.

Shaikh Ahmad (d. 1088 A.H./1677 A.D.) son of Ishaque Nasirabadi was born and brought up in Nasirabad. After completing his traditional education he became disciple of Shaikh Muhibbullah. 
He was an eminent theologian as well as a great saint. He had power to perform miracles. He was a man of letters and authored many books.
Keeping in view all the facts stated above it can easily be said that Shaikh Muhibbullah’s ideas are of great value and signifiance for understanding the intellectual history of the period. All his works particularly his letters have very important aspect of medieval muslim 
mystical thought. In more than a dozen big and small works Shaikh has tried to explain and elucidate pantheistic thought of Ibn-e-Arabi but he considered his own elucidations and explanations difficult for an ordinary reader so he prepared glossaries and commentaries on them. 
The commentaries contain an effective exposition of the theory of Wahdatul Wujud both on the basis of metaphysical speculation and spiritual experience. He produced enormous literature in the form of advanced works brochures, treatises and letters on mystical and theosophical themes.
A brief introduction of his books is as follows :-

TARJUMATUL KITAB

This is the very first writing of Shaikh which he composed at the command of Allah and in which the meanings of Quranic verses have been explored. During his stay at Sadrapur Shaikh read a commentary on Fususul Hikam which he thought did not correctly interpret Ibnul Arabi’s views. His Tarjamatul Kitab is a commentary on Quran. It is also known as Al-Maratibul Arbaah. The purpose of the book is to provide Quranic justification for the doctrine of Wahdatul 
Wujud. At several places he interprets Quranic verses in such a way contrary to the belief of the orthodox Ulama. The Shaikh later added a glossary to the book under the title of Hashiyah-e-Tarjumatul Kitab.

SHARH-E-FUSUSUL HIKAM

Shaikh wrote a commentary on Fususul Hikam in Arabic and Persian both. He began it in 1041 A.H. and completed it the same year. 
He wrote it when he had not studied Futuhat-e-Makkiyah as he mentions in Manazir-e-Akhassul Khawas. Later on he abridged it and brought out a shorter Sharh-e-Fususul Hikam for the use of common people. He added to it a preface and a glossary of the terms. During his stay at Sadrapur he read some commentaries on Fususul Hikam and came to the conclusion that Ibn-e-Arabi's views were not correctly interpreted. So with a view to presenting a correct interpretation of Ibnul Arabi’s views he wrote a commentary on Fusus in Arabic. After reaching Allahabad he realised that his Arabic commentary would not serve his purpose, so he compiled another commentary in Persian for those who were unable to go through the lengthy commentaries and to make out the technical terms, he compiled an abridgement of the Fusus in Persian. It shows the extent of his keenness to revive and popularise the mystical philosophy of Ibnul Arabi .

ANFASUL KHAWAS

Anfasul Khawas is also one of the greatest works of Shaikh. It is based upon the best write ups on tasawwuf. It has been written in the style of Fususul Hikam. In it he has explained the problems of Wahdatul Wujud in the light of Quran and the Ahadith. In this book he has explained the Shajrah-e-Tariqah (family tree of Tariqah) also. In this book Shaikh has interpreted the sayings of the different prophets including Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), the four caliphs and some important saints in pantheistic ways. Its first chapter begins with the reality of Prophet Muhammad and the last ends with Shaikh Abu Said of Gangoh, the spiritual guide of Shaikh. Some very important informations about Shaikh Muhibbullah’s life and experiences are also found in it.

RISALAH-E-HAFT AHKAM

This is a small treatise containing 30 pages on Gnosis of God. This was written in 1053 A.H./1641 A.D. It contains seven cardinal principles of Wahdatul Wujud. Shaikh writes that the true gnosis of God depends on seven things. The subjects of the treatise are : Names of God, His emanation in the world, His way of addressing men, 
perfection and imperfection of Being, knowledge of the Self, the world of imagination, the knowledge of spiritual diseases and their remedies. This is small but an important work of Shaikh.

TASWIYAH

The most controversial work of Shaikh is his Taswiyah in which he ardently defends the theories of Wahdatul Wujud. This short treatise asserts Shaikh’s firm belief in Wahdatul Wujud and invites 
sufis to submerge themselves in thoughts of Unity of Being. This treatise provides valuable informations regarding Wahdatul Wujud. Taswiyah establishes the identity between God and the World. The other doctrine of this short and provocative treatise is that Jibrael of every prophet is within him. Revelation does not come from outside, it is an inspiration from with in the Prophet.
A Persian commentary on Taswiyah was written by Khwaja Khurd the son of Baqibillah, in order to popularise the work among scholars who were unable to understand it in Arabic.Taswiyah was vehemently opposed by a group of Ulama. The reputed scholar Mulla Mahmood Jaunpuri wrote in refutation of Taswiyah a treatise entitled “Hifzul Iman Fi Raddil Taswiyah.”After the death of Shaikh Muhibbullah when Aurangzeb came to know about the objectionable passages of the book he called Shaikh Muhammadi Fayyaz a disciple of Shaikh, either to explain passages or to burn the book in public. Shaikh Muhammadi Fayyaz apologised that he had not come up to the stage where he can explain his Shaikh’s views, nor he had need to burn the copies of the book.Neither the opposition of Ulama nor the threat of King could affect the popularity of the work which was commented by a number of eminent persons like Shaikh Abdullah Dehalvi, Khwaja Khurd, 
Shah Kalimullah and Amanullah Banarasi etc.

SHARH-E-TASWIYAH

The original Arabic version of Taswiyah was very short and naturally amenable to misinterpretation, To dispell misunderstanding, 
Shaikh wrote a commentary on the book in Persian under the title 
"Sharh-e-Risalah-e-Taswiyah". The date of its completion is some time between 1047 and 1050 A.H.

AQAIDUL KHAWAS

This book was begun and completed in 1047 A.H. The book contains twenty one chapters and discusses subjects as the Nature of Necessary Being and His attributes, the vision of God, The command of God, Prophethood, angels, faith, responsibilities of man, reward 
and punishment etc.

IBADATUL KHAWAS

This big sized book has 1377 pages; it was begun in 1051 A.H. and completed in 1053 A.H./1641A.D.). The book is divided into fifteen Tanbihs (warnings), nine chapters, 537 sub chapters and a conclusion. In this book all the problems have been dealt with in details.
The work begins with a discussion of eschatalogy, paradise, hell and goes on to discuss the mystic significance of ablution, prayer, alms, fasting and pilgrimage. It discusses with the various aspects of Wahdatul Wujud from a popular view point of which he later made an Arabic translation.

MAGHALITUL AMMAH

This middle sized book has 993 pages and is divided into 164 sections and a long introduction. It describes various problems as well as wrong faith and predilictions practiced by the people in the past. 
The book also has description of the justification of the Ruyat-e-Allah, 
Wilayat and Prophethood. The book has 150 Maghalit. In the middle of the book there are subheadings also. Everywhere in the book, there are quotations of Shaikh Akbar’s sayings to lend authenticity to the contention.

SEH RUKNI

Sehrukni which is known as Awrad-e-Muhibbi also is a short treatise in Persian dealing with the three principles of life of a devotee.
ASILAH-WA-AJWIBAH In this work, the questions of Dara Shikoh and answers of Shaikh have been dealt with.

MANAZIR-E-AKHASSUL KHAWAS

Shaikh Muhibbullah completed this monumental work in 1050 A.H./1640 A.D. It is a very important Persian work on sufism written by him. It also deals with a brief description of his mystical 
career and spiritual experiences. In this monumental sufistic work he discusses the basic concepts of sufism and systematically defines and defends the theory of Wahdatul Wujud and differentiates between the knowledge gained by Ulama and sufic intuitions, and goes on to discuss various categories of the sufi elite and their achievements. It emphasises the importance of Divine mercy and invites sufis to inculcate in themselves love for entire creation .
This book is confined to Ibn Arabi’s ideals based on his Futuhat-e-Makkiyah and Fususul Hikam and is replete with verses from Quran and Ahadith. Shaikh quotes in this book other sufis also 
but only to support and prove the philosophy of Ibn-e-Arabi.Ibn-e-Arabi’s philosophy was introduced in India by Fakhruddin Iraqi (688 A.H./1299 A.D.) and was publicly preached and popularised by Masud Bek (800 A.H./1398 A.D.) in the reign of Firoz Shah Tughlaq. As a result some intoxicated people started to proclaim “Anal Haq”. They had little regard for Shariah and considered it different and inferior to Tariqah. At the time of Shaikh Muhibbullah some Sufis regarded trance and intoxication superior to gnosis to God. Shaikh vehemently criticised such notions. He emphasised the importance of Shariah and gave ample quotations from Futhat-e-Mukkiyah and Fususul Hikam that Ibn-e-Arabi gives due importance to Shariah and emphatically preaches that real sufis always keep themselves within the boundaries of Shariah and never go beyond it and always they follow Quran and Sunnah.
This book is divided into 27 chapters. In this book Shaikh firstly tried to establish that doctrines of the sufis about God, His Being and the relation between necessary beings are different from 
those of theologians. He says all worships, prayers and spiritual practices of Sufis are preparation for the gnosis of God, God has created the world that man may know him. A perfect Sufi is one who ascends to God by keeping away from the people till God fills his heart with wisdom and sends him back towards people for guiding them and for explaining the tenets of Shariah with the help of knowledge that God has taught him. A Sufi should, therefore free himself from everything and concentrate on God talking to him and listening to him what He says and teaches about the real import of his holy sculpture. 
Shaikh says that for a real Sufi control of the Self is must and best way of controlling the Self is to follow Shariah. After discussing and mentioning a number of principles and definitions of Tasawwuf and Sufi Shaikh Muhibbullah concludes that Tasuwwuf is affibility and good conduct. The Sufi must be wise and have the knowledge of Reality. He is the Vicegerent of God on Earth. In brief, Tasawwuf is to emulate the attribution of God.
Thus Manazir-e-Akhassul Khawas preaches not only the Unity of Being but the Unity of mankind too and emphasises on devotion, love and mercy. Manazir-e-Akhassul Khawas has been 
edited by Prof. Hafiz Mohd. Tahir Ali, Santiniketan.

MAKTUBAT-E-SHAIKH MUHIBBULLAH

Sufis like other individuals, wrote letters to their teachers, disciples, friends and relatives, they knew that their letters would subsequently be compiled so they were cautious in reaching to different situations and problems. Nevertheless the letters are more valuable for an understanding of the stages in the development of their theories they wrote on their teachings. They also offer a valuable background to some historical events and social and religious 
controversies.
Shaikh’s letters clarify the concepts of Wahdatul Wujud and answer questions asked by Sufi friends or rivals. He wrote letters to some of his contemporaries to explain his understanding of Wahdatul 
Wujud, they number only eighteen and were written to Mulla Mahmood Jaunpuri, Shaikh Abdul Rashid Jaunpuri, Shaikh Ataullah Jaunpuri, Mir Mohd. Qannauji, Mir Syed Abdul Hakim, Shaikh Abdul Rahman, Shaikh Taj Muhammad, Shaikh Abdul Rahman Razi and Prince Dara Shikoh.Other Sufis generally had to answer the criticism of the Ulama or were involved in controversies between Wahdatul Wujud and Wahdatul Shuhud, but Shaikh Muhibbullah had to answer the 
criticism of the greatest physicist, philosopher and logician of his century Mulla Mahmood Jaunpuri who enjoyed the patronage of royal court. In series of letters to Mulla Mahmood out lining these views, he strenghtened his case by quoting Ibn-e-Arabi. The formal knowledge acquired by an ilm was associated with an inability to understand or appreciate the work of sufis, whom Shaikh Muhibbullah called Ulama (possessors of divine knowledge)
In his letters Shaikh brought his memoirs which are also like his other works reflective of his faith in Wahdatul Wujud. The letters present even the subtle problem regarding haqaiq (realities) maarif (acquantance with Allah) and Tasawwuf. The letters (Maktubat) are in 433 pages middle sized book. The said book passionately supports Shaikh Akbar and the Philosophy of Wahdatul Wujud. The Maktubat are very important in the sense that they help to understand Shah Sahib’s view points and thoughts. The letters addressed to Dara Shikoh tell the readers about their mutual relationship. Through the letters the readers come to know about Dara Shikoh’s faith in Shah Sahib and the respect and reverence that Shah Sahib had to Dara Shikoh. Dara Shikoh wrote to Shaikh that he considered his new assignment a boon and blessing as it would give him an opportunity to profit from his company. He said, “There is hardly anyone, that I know of, who believes in the doctrine of the Unity of Being or has the knowledge of this doctrine. Certainly, there is none who except you has a clear notion of what it implies.”Shaikh expressed his sentiments about the prince thus : “One has to be thankful that no monarch or prince had the excellent qualities that you (i.e. Dara Shikoh) have. It is the good fortune of the people of the age that they have amidst them the charming prince whose distinguished virtues they can see and about whose laudable attributes they have heard so much .
Once Dara Shikoh enquired of Shaikh whether anydiscrimination between a Hindu and a Muslim was justified in matters of government. Shaikh wrote to him in reply. “The Faquir (i.e. himself) cannot give exhortations to anyone. Justice requires that the thought of the welfare of man should be uppermost in the minds of rulers, so that the people might be protected from the tyranny of 
officials. It does not matter if one is believer or a non believer. All human beings are the creatures of God. If one has such a feeling, he will not differentiate between a believer and a non believer and will show sympathy and consideration towards both. It is in the Quran and the Futuhat has elucidated it that the Prophet was sent as a mercy unto all human beings .
However in his letters Shaikh expressively interpreted his concept of Wahdatul Wujud and tried to remove the misunderstanding created by the Ulama against him. The evidence in 
Shaikh’s letters suggests that he braved the storms of opposition against him with equanimity and patience.
Thus the Shaikh’s letters are very important for a proper evaluation and explanation of Wahdatul Wujud and puritanical reforms of the Sunni faith and sufism. His letters are exceedingly 
frank and militant in the assertion of the superiority of Wahdatul Wujud. Thus it can be safely said that these letters explain Shaikh’s ideas about Wahdatul Wujud firmly without inhibition. The letters explain the Shaikh’s teaching on Wahdatul Wajud and make apparant his broadly based humanitarian outlook. He held that all human beings are united like a family descending from a common stock he says “father of everyone of us is Adam, so everyone deserves mercy  and kindness .
However the importance of Shaikh’s letters is far reaching. Although no new mystical and religious outlook can be gleaned from Shaikh’s letters. However his letters answer both theological and 
mystical questions and shed full light on the cultural religious and social aspects of 17th century Indian life.

Apart from the books stated above other books of Shaikh are.



  • Ghayatul Ghayat,
  • Kitabul Mubin,
  • Sirrul Khawas,
  • TuruqulKhawas,
  • Risalah-e-Wujud-e-Mutlaq,
  • Risalah-e-Sair-Ilahi,
  • Risalah-e-Ianatul Ikhwan,
  • Risalah-e-Tawhid and 
  • Imalatul Qulub.

Manuscripts of most of the Shaikh’s works are preserved and available for scholars in his Khanqah’s library which is under the supervision of Shah Muhammad Saifullah, Sajjadah nashin of Shaikh’s Khanqah. Some of them are in Shaikh’s handwriting.

Name of Books-Copies

1. Sehrukni / Awrad-e-Muhibbi 3
2. Manazir-e-Akhassul Khawas 4
3. Anfasul Khawas 2
4. Sharh-e-Fususul Hikam 3
5. Muktubat-e-Shaikh 2
6. Tarjamatul Kitab 1
7. Aqaidul Khawas 3
8. Iba datul Khawas 1
9. Haft Akham 4
10. Taswiyah 1
11. Sharh-e-Taswiyah 1
12. Ghayatul Ghayat 1
13. Risalah-e-Sair-Ilahi 1

In short every writing of Shaikh presents proof of his deep insight, subtlety of thoughts, realities of tasawwuf and description of “Maarif” go above those having superficial consciousness. His all books at various places invite readers towards deep thoughts and contemplation. His ideas and thoughts are of great value and significance for understanding the intellectual history of his period. If all his works are published an important aspect of the medieval muslim mystical thought will come to the light.

References


1. Abdul Hai, Nuzhatul Khawatir Vol. V, P.323
2. Syed Shaukat Husain, Zikrul Maarif PP. 14, 15
3. Masud Anwar Alavi. Kawakib P. 55
4. Shaikh Muhibbullah, Sharh-e-Taswiyah
5. Shaikh Muhibbullah, Manazir-e-Akhassul Khawas
6. Yusuf Hussain Khan, Islamic Culture, P.315.
7. Tahir Ali, Islamic Culture/Maathirul Umara Vol. III P. 606
8. Shaikh Muhibbullah, Manazir-e-Akhassul Khawas Manzar 2
9. Shaikh Muhibbullah, Manazir-e-Akhassul Khawas Manzar 2
10. Shaikh Muhibbullah, Anfasul Khawas
11. Rahman Ali, Tazkirah-e-Ulama-e-Hind P.175.
12. Shaikh Muhibbullah, Maktubat-e-Shaikh Muhibbullah, 
P. 148-149
13. 12. Shaikh Muhibbullah, Maktubat-e-Shaikh Muhibbullah, 
P. 151
14. Shaikh Muhibbullah, Shaikh Ibn Arabi, P. 76
15. A.A. Rizvi, History of Sufism in India Vol. II P. 269
16. A.A. Rizvi, History of Sufism in India Vol. II P. 98
17. A.A. Rizvi, History of Sufism in India Vol. II P. 606-607.
18. Hafiz Prof. M. Tahir Ali, Islamic Culture. P. 252
19. Yusuf Husain Khan, Islamic Culture P. 321.
20. Maulana Qamaruzzaman, Aqwal-e-Salaf P. 191
21. Prof. M. Tahir Ali, Islamic Culture P. 254
22. A.A. Rizvi, History of Sufism in India Vol. II P. 17
23. Shaikh Muhibullah, Muktubat-e-Shaikh
24. Shaikh Muhibbullah, Manazir-e-Akhassul Khawas Manzar 23
Edited by Prof. Tahir Ali.

OTHER SOURCES


1. Nizami Badayuni, Qamusul Mashahir
2. Dr. Nisar Ahamd Faruqui, Maqasidul Arifin
3. Maqbool Ahmad Samdani, Hayat-e-Jalil
4. Khaliq Ahmad Nizami Tarikhi Maqalat.
5. Khaliq Ahmad Nizami, Tarikh-e-Mashaikh-e-Chisht
6. Muhammad Nizamuddin, Tarikh-e-Mashaikh-a-Allahabad.
Khanqah Hazrat Shah Muhibbullah Allahabadi


Share Post